We have previously shown that the Gq protein coupled receptor (GqPCR) agonist, carbachol (CCh), transactivates and recruits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr)-dependent signaling mechanisms in intestinal epithelial cells. Increasing evidence suggests that GqPCR agonists can also recruit focal adhesion-dependent signaling pathways in some cell types. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if CCh stimulates activation of the focal adhesion-associated protein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), in intestinal epithelia and, if so, to examine the signaling mechanisms involved. Experiments were carried out on monolayers of T84 cells grown on permeable supports. CCh rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in T84 cells. This effect was accompanied by phosphorylation of another focal adhesion-associated protein, paxillin, and association of FAK with paxillin. CCh-stimulated FAK phosphorylation was inhibited by a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, BAPTA/AM (20 microM), and was mimicked by thapsigargin (2 microM), which mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in a receptor-independent fashion. CCh also induced association of FAK with the EGFr and FAK phosphorylation was attenuated by an EGFr inhibitor, tyrphostin AG1478, and an inhibitor of Src family kinases, PP2. The actin cytoskeleton disruptor, cytochalasin D (20 microM), abolished FAK phosphorylation in response to CCh but did not alter CCh-induced EGFr or ERK MAPK activation. In summary, these data demonstrate that agonists of GqPCRs have the ability to induce FAK activation in intestinal epithelial cells. GqPCR-induced FAK activation is mediated by via a pathway involving transactivation of the EGFr and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton.
"These results indicate that MMP-2 inhibits cellular condensation via the inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK that mediates assembly of focal adhesion complex at the cell adhesion site. The cytoskeleton is critical to the formation of the focal adhesion complexes regulated by the interaction between FAK and integrin β1 (Bang et al., 2000; Calandrella et al., 2005). We previously reported that cytochalasin D (CD), an inhibitor of actin polymerization, inhibits precartilage condensation via negative regulation of FAK phosphorylation (Bang et al., 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) has the capacity to degrade cartilage extracellular matrix molecules, the turnover of which is an essential event in chondrogenesis. Here, we investigated the functional role of MMP-2 in chondrogenesis of leg bud mesenchymal cells. Small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of mmp-2 promoted precartilage condensation and chondrogenesis. Treatment with bafilomycin A1, an MMP-2 activator, or GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, at the pre-condensation stage resulted in the inhibition or promotion of chondrogenesis, respectively. By comparison, treatment at the post-condensation stage had little or no effect on chondrogenesis. These results indicate that MMP-2 is involved in the regulation of cell condensation. Inhibition of MMP-2 activity by mmp-2 specific siRNA increased the protein level of fibronectin, and integrins alpha5 and beta1. The interaction between focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin beta1 leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK was also enhanced. Moreover, inactivation of p38MAPK down-regulated the level of MMP-2 mRNA and activity, and increased mesenchymal cell condensation in parallel with enhanced phosphorylation of FAK. Taken together, our data indicate that MMP-2 mediates the inhibitory signals of p38MAPK during mesenchymal cell condensation by functioning as a negative regulator of focal adhesion activity regulated by FAK via interactions with fibronectin through integrin beta1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1 Muscarinic M1–M5 receptors mediate the metabotropic actions of acetylcholine in the nervous system. A growing body of data indicate they also mediate autocrine functions of the molecule. The availability of novel and selective muscarinic agonists and antagonists, as well as in vivo gene disruption techniques, has clarified the roles of muscarinic receptors in mediating both functions of acetylcholine.
2 Selective M1 agonists or mixed M1 agonists/M2 antagonists may provide an approach to the treatment of cognitive disorders, while M3 antagonism, or mixed M2/M3 antagonists, are approved for the treatment of contractility disorders including overactive bladder and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preclinical data suggest that selective agonism of the M4 receptor will provide novel anti-nociceptive agents, while therapeutics-based upon agonism or antagonism of the muscarinic M5 receptor have yet to be reported.
3 The autocrine functions of muscarinic receptors broadly fall into two areas – control of cell growth or proliferation and mediation of the release of chemical mediators from epithelial cells, ultimately causing muscle relaxation. The former particularly are involved in embryological development, oncogenesis, keratinocyte function and immune responsiveness. The latter regulate contractility of smooth muscle in the vasculature, airways and urinary bladder.
4 Most attention has focused on muscarinic M1 or M3 receptors which mediate lymphocyte immunoresponsiveness, cell migration and release of smooth muscle relaxant factors. Muscarinic M4 receptors are implicated in the regulation of keratinocyte adhesion and M2 receptors in stem cell proliferation and development. Little data are available concerning the M5 receptor, partly due to the difficulties in defining the subtype pharmacologically.
5 The autocrine functions of acetylcholine, like those in the nervous system, involve activation of several muscarinic receptor subtypes. Consequently, the role of these subtypes in autocrine, as well neuronal cholinergic systems, significantly expands their importance in physiology and pathophysiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1-4) that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population.
EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells).
Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml) or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 muM) for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased alpha-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor.
PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as monitored by cell shapes, and epithelial or myofibroblast marker at least partly through EGFR transactivation via receptor-linked Src activation.
Respiratory research 02/2007; 8(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-8-31 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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