Moloney F, Yeow TP, Mullen A, Nolan JJ, Roche HM. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 887-895

Nutrigenomics Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 11/2004; 80(4):887-95.
Source: PubMed


Some animal studies have suggested that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation may have therapeutic potential with respect to insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, which are important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We investigated the effect of CLA supplementation on markers of glucose and insulin metabolism, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammatory markers of CVD in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-two subjects with stable, diet-controlled type 2 diabetes received CLA (3.0 g/d; 50:50 blend of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA) or control for 8 wk. A 3-h 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test was performed, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.
CLA supplementation significantly increased fasting glucose concentrations (6.3%; P < 0.05) and reduced insulin sensitivity as measured by homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose insulin sensitivity, and the insulin sensitivity index (composite) (P = 0.05). Total HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 8% (P < 0.05), which was due to a significant increase in HDL(2)-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05). The ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). CLA supplementation reduced fibrinogen concentrations (P < 0.01) but had no effect on the inflammatory markers of CVD (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6).
CLA supplementation had an adverse effect on insulin and glucose metabolism. Whereas CLA had positive effects on HDL metabolism and fibrinogen, a therapeutic nutrient should not be associated with potentially adverse effects on other clinical markers of type 2 diabetes.

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    • "3.0 grams CLA isomer mixture or placebo 8 weeks CLA decreased fibrinogen (í µí±ƒ < 0.01); no effects on CRP, IL-6 (í µí±ƒ > 0.05) 32 adults with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes [28] "
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    ABSTRACT: Academic Editor: Victor M. Baizabal-Aguirre Copyright © 2014 Shahida A. Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Obesity today stands at the intersection between inflammation and metabolic disorders causing an aberration of immune activity, and resulting in increased risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and pulmonary inflammation to name a few. Increases in mortality and morbidity in obesity related inflammation have initiated studies to explore different lipid mediated molecular pathways of attempting resolution that uncover newer therapeutic opportunities of anti-inflammatory components. Majorly the thromboxanes, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, and so forth form the group of lipid mediators influencing inflammation. Of special mention are the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids that regulate inflammatory mediators of interest in hepatocytes and adipocytes via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. They also exhibit profound effects on eicosanoid production.The inflammatory cyclooxygenase pathway arising fromarachidonic acid is a critical step in the progression of inflammatory responses. New oxygenated products of omega-3 metabolism, namely, resolvins and protectins, behave as endogenous mediators exhibiting powerful anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory actions via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this article we discuss the complex pathways and links between obesity and inflammation particularly in relation to different lipid mediators.
    Mediators of Inflammation 08/2014; Article ID 502749, 16 pages. DOI:10.1155/2014/502749 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Supplementation with conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also provide weight loss benefits [13,14]. These CLA-derived effects may be a result of enhanced β-oxidation via stimulation of enzymes responsible for transport of lipids into the mitochondria (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The present study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MIDS) containing caffeine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), green tea, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) taken for 8 weeks on body composition, blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in overweight and obese men and women. Methods Twenty-two participants completed the study (PL, n = 11; 7 women, 4 men; age, 34 ± 3.5 years; height, 169.2 ± 3.3 cm; body mass, 96.9 ± 6.8 kg; BMI, 34.1 ± 1.8 kg/m2; MIDS, n = 11; 9 women, 2 men; age, 36 ± 3.4 years; height, 173.2 ± 2.9 cm; body mass, 91.9 ± 5.6 kg; BMI, 30.0 ± 1.5 kg/m2). Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by body fat percentage to two groups: 1) a soybean oil placebo (PL) or 2) MIDS. Each group consumed two pills with breakfast and two pills with lunch. Body composition and android fat, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Results There were no significant changes for any of the variables of body composition. Feelings of hunger were significantly higher in MIDS versus PL with no changes observed in satiety or desire to eat. Heart rate and blood pressure were unaltered in MIDS after 8 weeks of supplementation. Furthermore, lipid profile, food intake, mood state variables, fasting blood glucose, and endocrine markers did not significantly change regardless of group. Conclusion MIDS intake does not appear to alter body composition or markers of cardiovascular health versus PL. Moreover, MIDS may actually increase feelings of hunger versus PL.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 07/2014; 11(1):37. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-11-37 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "In a study, usual dose of commercial CLA supplement improved the insulin sensitivity index in young diabetic adults, but some differences were observed in their responsiveness [10]. In another study, supplemental CLA significantly increased fasting glucose concentrations and reduced insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model), oral glucose insulin sensitivity and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) [7], while in our study any of related parameters were not affected. Inconsistency in the results of studies on diabetic patients may be due to differences in patients ‘responsiveness. "
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    ABSTRACT: The healthy properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) such as weight loss, reducing cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation have been reported. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer is related to increasing insulin resistance, but the effects of cis-9, trans-11 isomer is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CLA with and without Vitamin E on body weight, body composition, glycemic index, inflammatory and coagulation factors, lipid profile, serum leptin and adiponectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood pressure in type2 diabetes. 56 patients with type2 diabetes were included in 8 week double-blind control trial that used metformin. They randomly divided into three groups: CLA + VitE, CLA + VitE placebo, CLA placebo + VitE placebo. All variables, anthropometric measurements, and body composition were evaluated at the beginning and the end of study. Statistical analysis and analysis of dietary data were performed using SPSS and nutritionist IV software, respectively. There were not any significant differences in variable changes among three groups. However, there was a trend to increase in MDA and decrease in apoB100 among CLA consumers. The results of this study showed that administration of CLA supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect any indicators of metabolic control in overweight type2 diabetic patients.
    Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 07/2013; 12(1):42. DOI:10.1186/2251-6581-12-42
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