Immunotherapy with bovine aortic endothelial cells in subcutaneous and intracerebral glioma models in rats: effects on survival time, tumor growth, and tumor neovascularization.
ABSTRACT High-grade gliomas are aggressive tumors of the central nervous system characterized by endothelial cell proliferation and a high degree of vascularity. Conventional antitumoral treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) do not achieve satisfactory results (median survival in glioblastoma 12-18 months). It has been suggested that immunotherapy with xenogenic endothelial cells could slow tumor growth rate in a number of tumors in a murine model, but the study did not include gliomas. In experiments performed in our laboratory, vaccination with proliferating bovine aortic endothelium increased survival time in Fischer rats inoculated intracerebrally with 9L. Immunotherapy was also able to reduce the growth of subcutaneously injected 9L gliosarcoma cells in Fischer rats and to decrease microvessel density within the tumors, in the absence of major organ toxicity. Immunoglobulins (Ig) in the sera from vaccinated rats stained bovine aortic endothelium as well as human umbilical vein endothelium in active proliferation. Moreover, immune sera from immunized rats stained microvessels of human malignant glioma specimens and vessels of intracerebrally implanted tumors. Two proteins of MW of 11 and 19 kDa were identified by Western blot as targets of Ig elicited by vaccination. A possible future development is to select peptides/proteins suitable for vaccination in humans, avoiding the biohazards connected with xenogenic whole-cell vaccination.
Article: Tumor-induced endothelial cell surface heterogeneity directly affects endothelial cell escape from a cell-mediated immune response in vitro.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immune-mediated damage to tumor vessels is a potential means of preventing solid tumor progression. Antiangiogenic cancer vaccines capable of inducing this kind of damage include formulations comprised of endothelial cell-specific antigens. Identification of antigens capable of eliciting efficient vaccination is difficult because the endothelial cell phenotype is affected by surrounding tissues, including angiogenic stimuli received from surrounding tumor cells. Therefore, phenotype endothelial cell variations (heterogeneity) were examined in the context of the development of an efficient vaccine using mass spectrometry-based cell surface profiling. This approach was applied to primary human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC) cultures proliferated under growth stimuli provided by either normal tissues (growth supplement from human hypothalamus) or cancer cells (MCF-7, LNCap and HepG2). It was found that tumors induced pronounced, tumor type-dependent changes to HMEC surface targets that in an in vitro model of human antiangiogenic vaccination directly facilitated HMEC escape from cytotoxic T cell-mediated cell death. Furthermore, it was found that tumors influenced the HMEC phenotype unidirectionally and that HMEC imunogenicity was reciprocal to the intensity of tumor-induced changes to the HMEC surface. These findings provide data for the design of tumor-specific endothelial cell based vaccines with sufficient immunogenicity without posing a risk to the elicitation of autoimmunity if administered in vivo.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 01/2013; 9(1):198-209.
Article: Cellular cancer vaccines: an update on the development of vaccines generated from cell surface antigens.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A recent advance in anti-cancer therapies has been the use of cancer cells to develop vaccines. However, immunization with cancer cell-based vaccines has not resulted in significant long-term therapeutic benefits. A possible reason for this is that while cancer cells provide surface antigens that are targets for a desired immune response, they also contain a high abundance of housekeeping proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and other intracellular contents that are ubiquitous in all mammalian cells. These ubiquitous molecules are not the intended targets of this therapy approach, and thus, the immune response generated is not sufficient to eliminate the cancer cells present. In this review, a discussion of the cell surface of cancer cells is presented in relation to the goals of improving antigen composition of cancer cell-based vaccines. Strategies to enrich vaccines for cancer-specific antigens are also discussed.Journal of Cancer. 01/2010; 1:230-41.