Quantitative gene expression analysis in a nonhuman primate model of antibiotic-induced nephrotoxicity.
ABSTRACT Gene expression patterns using microarrays have been described for rodent models of nephrotoxicity. To determine if significant gene expression changes previously identified have application across multiple species, we studied quantitative gene expression changes in the kidneys of female cynomolgus monkeys after exposure to two nephrotoxicants. Animals were dosed with the aminoglycoside gentamicin (10 mg/kg), the experimental oligosaccharide antibiotic everninomicin (30 or 60 mg/kg), or a combination of gentamicin (10 mg/kg) and everninomicin (30 mg/kg) for 7 days. Monkeys receiving these drugs in combination developed renal lesions as early as Day 1. By Day 7, monkeys dosed with 60 mg/kg everninomicin alone also developed renal lesions, while the group exposed to both compounds had more extensive renal damage. The modulation of several genes previously reported to be associated with nephrotoxicity in rodent models was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Among these, waf-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vimentin exhibited changes consistent with the definition of a genomic indicator of toxicity. In addition, we identified three early gene biomarkers that may be predictive of drug-induced nephrotoxicity: clusterin, osteopontin, and hepatitis A virus cellular receptor-1. Logistic regression demonstrated a high degree of correlation between changes in gene expression and the probability of the development of histopathologic lesions. These results are the first confirming rodent gene expression changes associated with nephrotoxicity in a nonhuman primate model and provide preliminary evidence for identifying early gene expression changes predicting the onset of drug-induced renal tubular damage in cynomolgus monkeys.
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ABSTRACT: Microarrays are a new technology used to study global gene expression and to decipher biological pathways. In the current study, microarrays were used to examine gene expression patterns associated with cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats received either single or seven daily ip doses of cisplatin (0.5 or 1 mg/kg/day) or the inactive isomer transplatin (1 or 3 mg/kg/day). Histopathological evaluation revealed renal proximal tubular necrosis in animals that received cisplatin for 7 days, but no hepatotoxic findings. Microarray analyses were performed using rat specific arrays containing 250 toxicity-related genes. Prominent gene expression changes were observed only in the kidneys of rats that received cisplatin for 7 days. Mechanistically, the gene expression pattern elicited by cisplatin (e.g., Bax upward arrow and SMP-30 downward arrow) suggested the occurrence of apoptosis and the perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. The induction of multidrug resistance genes (MDR1 upward arrow, P-gp upward arrow) and tissue remodeling proteins (clusterin upward arrow, IGFBP-1 upward arrow, and TIMP-1 upward arrow) indicated the development of cisplatin resistance and tissue regeneration. Select gene expression changes were further confirmed by TaqMan analyses. Gene expression changes were not observed in the liver following cisplatin administration. In contrast to these in vivo findings, studies using NRK-52E kidney epithelial cells and clone-9 liver cells suggested that liver cells were more sensitive to cisplatin treatment. The discrepancies between the in vivo and in vitro results suggest that caution should be taken when extrapolating data from in vivo to in vitro systems. Nonetheless, the current study elucidates the biochemical pathways involved in cisplatin toxicity and demonstrates the utility of microarrays in toxicological studies.Toxicological Sciences 11/2001; 63(2):196-207. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The field of genomics has great potential in toxicology; however, the technology is still in its infancy and there are many questions that need to be addressed. In this study we focus on the use of toxicogenomics for the determination of gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was used to assess the toxic effects of two well-studied hepatotoxins, carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and ethanol (EtOH). Replicate dishes of HepG2 cells were exposed to two concentrations of CCl(4) and EtOH--doses which caused 20% and 50% cell death (as determined by the MTT assay) were chosen [0.18% and 0.4% (v/v) CCl(4); 2.5% and 5% (v/v) EtOH] and the cells exposed for periods of 2 and 24 h. mRNA was extracted and used to probe Atlas Human Toxicology II arrays (Clontech). Preliminary data revealed that following a 2-h exposure at the low doses of both compounds, few changes in gene expression were detected. However, after 24-h exposure of the cells to the same low concentration of both compounds, multiple changes in gene expression were observed, many of which were specific to the individual hepatotoxins, presumably reflecting their different mechanisms of action. CCl(4) treatment of HepG2 cells gave rise to treatment specific up-regulation of genes involved in extracellular transport and cell signalling, whereas EtOH treatment gave rise predominantly to down-regulation of genes involved in stress response and metabolism. In addition, changes in regulation of certain genes (involved in stress response and cell cycle) were common to both treatments. Exposure of HepG2 cells to higher doses of the hepatotoxins gave rise to more changes in gene expression at lower exposure times. These results strongly suggest that different mechanisms of hepatotoxicity may be associated with specific patterns of gene expression, while some genes associated with common cellular responses may be useful as early markers of toxicity.Toxicology in Vitro 01/2001; 15(4-5):399-405. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MRL-Fas(lpr) mice spontaneously develop a chronic lupus-like renal disease, characterized by immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and abundant mononuclear cell infiltration in the interstitium. In the present study we have examined whether the macrophage chemoattractant osteopontin (Opn) could be important in the recruitment of macrophages in this murine model of autoimmune renal injury. We have examined the expression of Opn in the kidney of MRL-Fas(lpr) mice and have correlated Opn synthesis with the degree of macrophage infiltration. Immunofluorescence staining revealed prominent expression of Opn by proximal tubules in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice but not in MRL-++ control mice. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that steady-state transcript levels for Opn mRNA were also significantly increased in MRL-Fas(lpr) kidneys compared with control kidneys. Furthermore, in situ hybridization showed massive Opn mRNA transcripts in proximal tubules in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice but not in controls. The diffuse macrophage infiltration in the kidney of MRL-Fas(lpr) correlated with the enhanced Opn expression. Opn secretion in vitro by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells was upregulated by TNF-alpha and 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, whereas no regulation was observed in a control macrophage cell line. We conclude that the enhanced expression of the chemotactic molecule Opn by tubular cells is a prominent feature of murine lupus nephritis and might be promoted by the proinflammatory cytokine environment in MRL-Fas(lpr). The chronic upregulation of Opn could participate in the recruitment of monocytes in the kidney of MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmune renal disease.Autoimmunity 02/1998; 28(3):139-50. · 2.77 Impact Factor