Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy.

Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Vita-Salute University, IRCCS H.S. Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 10/2004; 63(6):1065-9. DOI: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000138427.83574.A6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To perform a large and detailed epidemiologic study on restless legs syndrome (RLS) during pregnancy and the puerperium.
A structured clinical interview, assessing symptoms since the beginning of pregnancy, was performed to a population of 642 pregnant women at the time of delivery and at follow-up evaluation (1, 3, and 6 months after delivery). Main hematologic tests were also evaluated. A woman was considered affected if she met the International RLS Study Group criteria for RLS diagnosis.
Twenty-six percent of women were affected by RLS during their pregnancy. The disease was strongly related to the third trimester of pregnancy and tended to disappear reaching the time of delivery. Affected women presented lower values of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume compared with healthy subjects (both groups received the same supplemental iron and folate therapy).
Pregnancy is associated with transient restless legs syndrome.

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    ABSTRACT: Both restless legs syndrome ([RLS], also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease [WED]) and depression are common during pregnancy. However, no prior studies have assessed if pregnant women with RLS have an elevated risk of depression during and/or after pregnancy. 1,428 women who were pregnant in gestational week 16-17 were asked to participate in a longitudinal survey. They were followed by web-based questionnaires in gestational week 17 and 32, and 6 weeks after delivery. Data were also retrieved from prenatal and birth records. Two different sets of criteria were used to examine the prevalence of RLS in the cohort (International Restless Legs Syndrome Society Group standard criteria and the later developed CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire). The latter questionnaire attempts to exclude those with common "mimics" of RLS. Adjusted odds ratio for depression in gestational week 17, 32, and postpartum week 6 in relation to pre-pregnancy RLS onset and moderate to severe symptom severity were 4.74 (2.30 - 9.76), 3.67 (1.85 - 7.28), and 2.58 (1.28 - 5.21), respectively. No significant associations were seen in pregnant women with de novo RLS during pregnancy. When using the standard diagnostic RLS criteria and frequency of symptoms more than 2-3 days per week, the prevalence of RLS was 12.3%. With the CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire and the same threshold for frequency of symptoms the prevalence was 6.5%. Women with RLS onset before pregnancy with moderate or severe symptoms had an increased risk of both antenatal and postnatal depression. The self-reported prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is lower when a questionnaire dealing with "mimics" is used. Wesström J, Skalkidou A, Manconi M, Fulda S, Sundström-Poromaa I. Pre-pregnancy restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease) is associated with perinatal depression. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):527-533.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This narrative review describes the differential diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, and provides an overview of the evidence for the associations between RLS and potential comorbidities. Secondary causes of RLS and the characteristics of pediatric RLS are also discussed. Finally, management strategies for RLS are summarized. Methods: The review began with a comprehensive PubMed search for "restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease" in combination with the following: anxiety, arthritis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cardiac, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities, depression, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, insomnia, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, mood disorder, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, neuropathy, obesity, pain, Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, pregnancy, psychiatric disorder, sleep disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and uremia. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Results and Conclusions: Although clinical diagnosis of RLS can be straightforward, diagnostic challenges may arise when patients present with comorbid conditions. Comorbidities of RLS include insomnia, depressive and anxiety disorders, and pain disorders. Differential diagnosis is particularly important, as some of the medications used to treat insomnia and depression may exacerbate RLS symptoms. Appropriate diagnosis and management of RLS symptoms may benefit patient well-being and, in some cases, may lessen comorbid disease burden. Therefore, it is important that physicians are aware of the presence of RLS when treating patients with conditions that commonly co-occur with the disorder.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by paresthesia and an urge to move. Predominantly, symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity. RLS prevalence in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 5%. Areas covered: This review presents all options for the treatment of RLS. Expert opinion: Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS, that is, when symptoms impair the patient's quality of life, daytime functioning, social functioning or sleep. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in some RLS patients, and medications include carbidopa/levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, oxycodone, methadone, codeine and tramadol. Chronic RLS should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or an α-2-δ calcium channel ligand. A dopamine agonist is a more appropriate choice in the presence of depression and overweight. As α-2-δ ligands can alleviate chronic pain and may be helpful in treating anxiety and insomnia, the presence of any of these comorbidities may favor their use. For RLS present through much of the day and night, the use of long-acting agents, such as the rotigotine patch or gabapentin enacarbil should be considered. In refractory RLS, oral prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone should be considered.
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