Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 11/2004; 27(10):2518-39. DOI: 10.2337/diaspect.18.2.88
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT F or decades, exercise has been consid-ered a cornerstone of diabetes man-agement, along with diet and medication. However, high-quality evi-dence on the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes was lacking until recent years. The last American Diabetes Associ-ation (ADA) technical review of exercise and type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non–insulin dependent diabetes) was published in 1990. The present work emphasizes the advances that have oc-curred since the last technical review was published. Major developments since the 1990 technical review include: ● Advances in basic science, increasing our understanding of the effects of ex-ercise on glucoregulation. ● Large clinical trials demonstrating that lifestyle interventions (diet and exer-cise) reduce incidence of type 2 diabe-tes in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). ● Meta-analyses of structured exercise in-terventions in type 2 diabetes showing: 1) effectiveness of exercise in reducing HbA 1c , independent of body weight; and 2) association between exercise training intensity and change in HbA 1c . ● Large cohort studies showing that low aerobic fitness and low physical activity level predict increased risk of overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mor-tality in people with diabetes. ● Clinical trials showing effectiveness of resistance training (such as weight lift-ing) for improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. ● New data on safety of resistance train-ing in populations at high risk for CVD.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine and compare the separate effects of Aerobic Endurance Exercise (AEE) and Progressive Resistance Exercise(PRE) on some Anthropometric features of Body weight (BW), Body Mass Index (BMI), Percent Body Fat (PBF) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) of type 2 diabetics. Type-2 diabetes outpatient volunteers who registered in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Medical Centre and met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. The randomize Pretest-Posttest Control Group quasi-experimental design was adopted as participants were randomly assigned to each two experimental and one control groups. The study participants in the two experimental groups were exposed to two different exercise modes for 15 weeks while their effects on the anthropometric features were monitored and recorded. Four null hypotheses guided the study, while the descriptive (means, SD and range) and inferential statistics (ANCOVA, eta squared (R2), and SIDAK pairwise multiple comparisons) were employed for the data analyses. Results revealed that all the hypotheses were not supported indicating that the two exercise protocols had significance effect as seen in the mean values differences of the pretest and posttest anthropometric measures. It was concluded that a twice-weekly session of 15-week supervised circuit type endurance exercise and progressive resistance training protocol at moderate intensity had beneficial reduction effects on physical parameters of body weight body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and percent body fat. As a result, the two modes of exercise were effective in mediating anthropometric features of person recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes recommendations were made based on the findings. Keywords: Type-2 diabetes, Body composition, Obesity, Aerobic Endurance Exercise, Progressive Resistance Exercise.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether physical activity and adiposity modify the increased risk of cancer associated with diabetes. We prospectively examined the association of diabetes and risk of cancer among 73,726 persons stratified by physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 22.0years, 9572 people were diagnosed with incident cancer. There was no clear association between diabetes and cancer risk in those reporting high levels of physical activity (≥2.0h per week) (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.70-1.24) or those with a normal weight (BMI <25kg/m(2)) (HR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.84-1.25). However, among people with diabetes who reported low levels of physical activity (<2.0h per week), diabetes was associated with an HR of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.31). Correspondingly, diabetes was associated with an HR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07-1.37) among overweight or obese people (BMI ≥25kg/m(2)). There was evidence that the increased risk of cancer associated with diabetes was confined to persons who reported low levels of physical activity, or who were overweight or obese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.12.001 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance training (RT) can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA) concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years) that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34) that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34) that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001). Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001), leg extension (p<0.001), shoulder press (p<0.001), leg curl (p=0.001), seated row (p<0.001), leg press (p=0.001) and high pulley (p<0.001). The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024). We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics.
    09/2014; 43(1). DOI:10.2478/hukin-2014-0085


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