Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 11/2004; 27(10):2518-39. DOI: 10.2337/diaspect.18.2.88
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT F or decades, exercise has been consid-ered a cornerstone of diabetes man-agement, along with diet and medication. However, high-quality evi-dence on the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes was lacking until recent years. The last American Diabetes Associ-ation (ADA) technical review of exercise and type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non–insulin dependent diabetes) was published in 1990. The present work emphasizes the advances that have oc-curred since the last technical review was published. Major developments since the 1990 technical review include: ● Advances in basic science, increasing our understanding of the effects of ex-ercise on glucoregulation. ● Large clinical trials demonstrating that lifestyle interventions (diet and exer-cise) reduce incidence of type 2 diabe-tes in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). ● Meta-analyses of structured exercise in-terventions in type 2 diabetes showing: 1) effectiveness of exercise in reducing HbA 1c , independent of body weight; and 2) association between exercise training intensity and change in HbA 1c . ● Large cohort studies showing that low aerobic fitness and low physical activity level predict increased risk of overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mor-tality in people with diabetes. ● Clinical trials showing effectiveness of resistance training (such as weight lift-ing) for improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. ● New data on safety of resistance train-ing in populations at high risk for CVD.

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    ABSTRACT: The study compared effects of maximal resistance training (MRT) versus endurance resistance training (ERT) in overweight people at risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes. Dependent variables included changes in body fat %, upper leg skeletal muscle area (left + right), BMI and body weight pre-to post intervention. Eighteen individuals, 33-69 years of age, were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 engaged in MRT three days/week over a four month period while members of Group 2 acted as controls. Later, Group 2 engaged in ERT three days/week over a four month period and the members acted as their own controls. Both interventions consisted of eight exercises. Pre-to post changes were significant for MRT with a reduction in BMI (p=0.013) and body weight (p=0.010), while per-centage of body fat was significantly reduced (p=0.009) and skeletal muscle area increased (p=0.021) with ERT. The results support both approaches as interventions in primary prevention of obesity and consequently in reducing risk of Type 2 Diabetes.
    Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis. 09/2012; 17.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine and compare the separate effects of Aerobic Endurance Exercise (AEE) and Progressive Resistance Exercise(PRE) on some Anthropometric features of Body weight (BW), Body Mass Index (BMI), Percent Body Fat (PBF) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) of type 2 diabetics. Type-2 diabetes outpatient volunteers who registered in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Medical Centre and met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. The randomize Pretest-Posttest Control Group quasi-experimental design was adopted as participants were randomly assigned to each two experimental and one control groups. The study participants in the two experimental groups were exposed to two different exercise modes for 15 weeks while their effects on the anthropometric features were monitored and recorded. Four null hypotheses guided the study, while the descriptive (means, SD and range) and inferential statistics (ANCOVA, eta squared (R2), and SIDAK pairwise multiple comparisons) were employed for the data analyses. Results revealed that all the hypotheses were not supported indicating that the two exercise protocols had significance effect as seen in the mean values differences of the pretest and posttest anthropometric measures. It was concluded that a twice-weekly session of 15-week supervised circuit type endurance exercise and progressive resistance training protocol at moderate intensity had beneficial reduction effects on physical parameters of body weight body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and percent body fat. As a result, the two modes of exercise were effective in mediating anthropometric features of person recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes recommendations were made based on the findings. Keywords: Type-2 diabetes, Body composition, Obesity, Aerobic Endurance Exercise, Progressive Resistance Exercise.
    Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 09/2014; 4(22):67-74.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the >65 year-old group. The challenge of defining the goals of therapy arises from the heterogeneity of the aging process and the sparse clinical data in this patient population. In light of these challenges, the clinician should be aware of the pitfalls of caring for the older diabetic patient and prioritize an individualized treatment plan to ensure an optimal glycemic control, without placing the patient at unnecessary risk. We present a review of the current guidelines and literature that deal specifically with the treatment of the older diabetic patient in order to establish the principles of treatment in this age group and help the clinician make decisions regarding the care of these patients.
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2014; 7:391-400.


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