Allosteric Potentiators of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 (mGlu2). Part 1. Identification and Synthesis of Phenyl-tetrazolyl Acetophenones.
ABSTRACT We have identified and synthesized a series of aryl-tetrazoyl acetophenones as positive allosteric potentiators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2. Structure activity relationship studies directed toward improving the potency and level of potentiation led to the discovery of 22 (EC(50)=93nM, 128% potentiation).
- SourceAvailable from: P. Jeffrey Conn[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) agonists were shown previously to nonselectively decrease both cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rats. mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may represent improved therapeutic compounds because of their modulatory properties and higher selectivity for mGluR2. We analyzed the effects of the selective, brain penetrant, and systemically active mGluR2 PAM potassium 3'-([(2-cyclopentyl-6-7-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]methyl)biphenyl l-4-carboxylate (BINA) and the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats that had short (1 h, ShA) or long (6 h, LgA) access to cocaine. The effects of BINA on food responding and food-seeking behavior were also analyzed. Finally, we examined the effects of BINA on brain reward function and cocaine-induced reward enhancement using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. BINA decreased cocaine self-administration in both ShA and LgA rats, with no effect on food self-administration. Alternatively, LY379268 nonselectively decreased both cocaine and food self-administration. BINA decreased cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking with no effect on food seeking. The cocaine-induced enhancement of brain reward function was blocked by BINA, although the highest doses of BINA decreased brain reward function when administered alone, suggesting additive, rather than interactive, effects of BINA and cocaine. In conclusion, BINA attenuated the reinforcing and counteracted the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine and decreased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without affecting behaviors motivated by food reinforcement. The higher selectivity of BINA compared with an mGluR2/3 agonist for drug- vs food-motivated behaviors suggests a therapeutic role for mGluR2 PAMs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and possibly other drugs of abuse.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2010; 35(10):2021-36. DOI:10.1038/npp.2010.82 · 7.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have identified and synthesized a series of 4-thiopyridyl acetophenones as positive allosteric potentiators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2. Structure-activity relationship studies directed toward replacement of the tetrazole in the initial lead led to the discovery of 16 (EC(50)=340 nM), which showed improved brain penetration over the initial lead.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 01/2005; 14(23):5867-72. DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.09.028 · 2.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our understanding of glutamatergic transmission in the central nervous system has been greatly expanded with the discovery and investigation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. Complementing the ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels, these G-protein coupled receptors play critical roles in neuronal and glial functions such as the modulation of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and various metabolic functions. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of glutamatergic synapses, it has been deemed likely that mGlu receptors participate in most, if not all, major functions of the CNS. It is predicted that the wide diversity and heterogeneous distribution of mGlu receptor subtypes will provide avenues to develop clinically relevant pharmacological agents that target specific CNS systems. mGlu receptors are regulated by differences in expression, alternative splicing patterns, and interactions with other proteins in the cell and it is anticipated that an understanding of these modifiers of mGlu receptor function will open new opportunities for pharmacological tool development and new therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, an increasing number of selective agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators have been developed which target distinct mGlu receptor subtypes; many of these agents have now been further validated in numerous electrophysiological and behavioral models. The combination of these pharmacological tools, in conjunction with genetic approaches, has led to major advances in our understanding of the roles of mGlu receptors in the regulation of CNS function and animal behavior. These studies suggest the exciting possibility that drugs active at mGlu receptors will be useful in treatment of a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 02/2005; 5(9):847-57. DOI:10.2174/1568026054750254 · 3.45 Impact Factor