Biomarkers for risk assessment in molecular epidemiology of cancer.
ABSTRACT One out of four deaths in the USA is due to cancer. Identification of populations at risk of developing cancer is important as it provides opportunities for prevention and treatment of cancer. Biomarkers are measurable indicators of exposure effects and susceptibility or disease state, and are used to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression. In recent molecular epidemiology studies genomic, proteomic, and epigenomic markers have been utilized which exhibit high sensitivity and specificity for different tumor types and can be assayed in biofluids and other specimens collected by non-invasive technologies. The current challenges and future directions in the field are discussed in this article.
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are measurable indicators of exposure effects and susceptibility or disease state, and are used to un-derstand the mechanisms of cancer progression. Considering the trend of increase in incidence rate of the cervical cancer and high prevalence in the developing countries, there is a need to identify and validate new markers for cervical cancer detection. Here we have reviewed the potential and prom-ise of markers which can be categorized into different class-es such as chromosomal anomalies, DNA adduct formation, cell cycle check points, oncogene, tumor suppressor gene ex-pression, apoptosis, epigenetic, metabolic markers and imag-ing markers. The advantages of one class of a marker over others and their clinical implication in cervical cancer diag-nosis are discussed. INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths among women (1-2). One in 10 female cancers diagnosed worldwide is cancer of the cer-vix (3). Like other cancers, cervical carcinogenesis is a mul-tistep process, with accumulations of subsequent alterations in different signaling pathways that control cell proliferation from Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN I) to Severe Dysplasia/Carcinoma in situ (CIN-III) to cervical metasta-sis. Infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) is the most important and well-established risk factor in the development of cervical cancer (4-5). HPV gene products interact with host factors and may initiate transformation. However, not all HPV infections result in cancer, suggesting the role of other factors in the development of cervical cancer. Changes in gene expression occur during the initiation, pro-gression, and development of cancer and the identification of these changes can be used as markers for different stages of tumor development. In general, a biomarker is defined as a chemical, physical, or biological agent that is accessible in body matrices and can be measured in body fluids, cells, or tissues. In cancer detection and epidemiology, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the pres-ence of cancer in the body. It might be either a molecule se-creted by the tumor itself or a specific response by the body to the presence of cancer. The ideal biomarker should dem-onstrate high sensitivity and specificity, should be easy to as-say, and the assay should be cost effective, quantitative, and reproducible.
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ABSTRACT: A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. However, few cancer biomarkers are highly sensitive and specific for cancer detection at the present time. Consequently, biomarkers are not yet ready for routine use due to challenges in their clinical validation for early disease detection, diagnosis and monitoring to improve long-term survival of patients.03/2010; 2(1):190-208. DOI:10.3390/cancers2010190
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Biomarkers are needed to detect this cancer early during the disease development and for screening populations to identify those who are at risk. In cancer, "biomarker" refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. A number of potential biomarkers have been identified for pancreatic cancer. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. These biomarkers need analytical and clinical validation so that they can be used for the purpose of screening and diagnosing pancreatic cancer and determining disease prognosis. In this article, the latest developments in pancreatic cancer biomarkers are discussed.12/2010; 2(4):1830-1837. DOI:10.3390/cancers2041830