One out of four deaths in the USA is due to cancer. Identification of populations at risk of developing cancer is important as it provides opportunities for prevention and treatment of cancer. Biomarkers are measurable indicators of exposure effects and susceptibility or disease state, and are used to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression. In recent molecular epidemiology studies genomic, proteomic, and epigenomic markers have been utilized which exhibit high sensitivity and specificity for different tumor types and can be assayed in biofluids and other specimens collected by non-invasive technologies. The current challenges and future directions in the field are discussed in this article.
"Studies were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with pancreatic cancer but attempts were unsuccessful. Other risk factors (family history, life style, exposure history) should be considered before making conclusions about a pancreatic cancer diagnosis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Biomarkers are needed to detect this cancer early during the disease development and for screening populations to identify those who are at risk. In cancer, "biomarker" refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. A number of potential biomarkers have been identified for pancreatic cancer. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. These biomarkers need analytical and clinical validation so that they can be used for the purpose of screening and diagnosing pancreatic cancer and determining disease prognosis. In this article, the latest developments in pancreatic cancer biomarkers are discussed.
"Several attempts have been made to define and classify cancer biomarkers using different approaches, but general consensus has yet to be established. Broadly, any biologically derived entity or processes which lead to a cancer diagnosis (in prognosis, screening and risk assessment), at the stage of diagnosis or post diagnosis (in therapy and treatment module) are potential candidates as cancer biomarkers [7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]. Due to the vast explosion of knowledge over the past several decades, collectively and in multiple spheres of the biomedical sciences and technology development, different methods have been suggested to classify cancer biomarkers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. However, few cancer biomarkers are highly sensitive and specific for cancer detection at the present time. Consequently, biomarkers are not yet ready for routine use due to challenges in their clinical validation for early disease detection, diagnosis and monitoring to improve long-term survival of patients.
"A biomarker is defined as any substance, structure or process that can be measured in the body and it influences or predicts the incidence of disease . For example, DNA adducts and some enzymes such as sulfotransferase A1 and epoxide hydroxylase have been validated and used as biomarkers for cancer detection . The current advances in proteomics technology enable the identification of specific biomarkers from complex biological specimens . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to discover potential biomarkers for dioxynivalenol (DON) intoxication. B6C3F1 male mice were orally exposed to 0.83, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) DON for 8 days and the differential protein expressions in their blood plasma were determined by SELDI - Time-of-Flight/Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) and the immunoglobulins (Igs) G, A, M and E in the serum were investigated. 11.7 kDa protein was significantly highly expressed according to DON administration and this protein was purified by employing a methyl ceramic HyperD F column with using optimization buffer for adsorption and desorption. The purified protein was identified as a haptoglobin precursor by peptide mapping with using LC/Q-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/MS and this was confirmed by western blotting and ELISA. IgG and IgM in serum were decreased in a dose-dependent manner and IgA was decreased at 7.5 mg/kg bw DON administration, but the IgE level was not changed. To compare the expressions of haptoglobin and the Igs patterns between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and DON intoxications, rats were orally administered with AFB1 1.0, ZEA 240 and DON 7.5 mg/kg bw for 8 days. Haptoglobin was increased only at DON 7.5 mg/kg bw, while it was slightly decreased at ZEA 240 mg/kg bw and it was not detected at all at AFB1 1.0 mg/kg bw. IgG and IgA were decreased by DON, but IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE were all increased by AFB1. No changes were observed by ZEA administration. These results show that plasma haptoglobin could be a diagnostic biomarker for DON intoxication when this is combined with examining the serum Igs.
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