Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.
ABSTRACT Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.
- SourceAvailable from: David M Barbano[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of fat and pH on the best estimate threshold (BET) of three prominent dairy product flavor compounds with varying physicochemical properties: diacetyl (2, 3-butanedione), δ-decalactone and furaneol (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone), in water, oil and oil-in-water model emulsions (at 10 and 20% fat at neutral and acidified pH 5.5) were investigated. The headspace-matrix partition coefficients (KHS/matrix) of each compound in the different matrixes were established using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The particle size of the emulsions was controlled. Fat had the largest impact on the BET and partition coefficients of δ-decalactone followed by diacetyl (P ≤ 0.05). Fat content did not affect the BET value of furaneol (P > 0.05) but some effects on partition coefficients were noted (P ≤ 0.05). BET values of the three compounds were unaffected by pH (P > 0.05), but differences in partition coefficients (P ≤ 0.05) were noted for diacetyl and furaneol.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThis manuscript provides a better understanding of sensory detection thresholds as a result of partitioning of three flavor compounds that are different in physico-chemical properties and are prominent in dairy product flavor. The acquired knowledge on these compounds may assist product developers in adjusting levels of flavor compounds in reduced fat products to achieve products similar in flavor properties to full fat products, considering the effect of fat and pH of the products on the compounds. Understanding the partition coefficients and detection threshold of one of the compounds studied, diacetyl, may also provide insights in ongoing debates on diacetyl and its safety levels in dairy products.Journal of Sensory Studies 05/2010; 25(3):347 - 370. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The release of volatile compounds, such as aroma, from a food material during hydration is of wide relevance to the food industry. To this end, dry powders of varying chemical composition were hydrated in a con-trolled system to investigate the impact of varying com-position (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) on the delivery rate of volatile compounds to the headspace. Additional lipid and carbohydrate reduced the concentration of vola-tile compounds in the headspace and accelerated their rate of delivery to the headspace. Protein had no measurable impact. Of the volatile compounds measured, 2,3 butane-dione and acetaldehyde were shown to be released slowly into the headspace, and pyrrol, methyl acetate and pyridine were released rapidly; this differential release rate was strongly correlated with hydrophobicity and would indicate that during hydration there is a temporal dimension to the relative abundance of volatile compounds in the headspace.European Food Research and Technology 01/2012; 235:517-525. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optimization for retention and partition coefficient of ethyl acetate in emulsion model systems was investigated using response surface methodology in this paper. The effects of emulsion model ingredients, tragacanth gum (TG) (0.5-1wt%), whey protein isolate (WPI) (2-4wt%) and oleic acid (5-10%, v/v) on retention and partition coefficient of ethyl acetate were studied using a five-level three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that the regression models generated adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationships between the independent and response parameters. The results showed that the highest retention (97.20±0.51%) and lowest partition coefficient (4.51±0.13%) of ethyl acetate were reached at the TG concentration 1wt%, WPI concentration 4wt% and oleic acid volume fraction 10% (v/v).Carbohydrate polymers. 11/2013; 98(2):1667-76.