Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.
"Carrapiso et al. (2003) reported a close relationship between the fatty acid composition of the subcutaneous fat and the sensory traits (oiliness, brightness and marbling) of dry-cured hams. Moreover , the fat content and the fat solid/liquid ratio also affect the flavor release in meat products (Estévez, Ventanas, & Cava, 2005; Relkin, Marjorie, & Guichard, 2004). Therefore, the analysis of the subcutaneous fat, performed without affecting the integrity of the dry-cured ham, would provide information on the sensory traits of the dry-cured Iberian hams. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of using ultrasounds to characterize the melting properties of fat from Iberian dry-cured hams was evaluated. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and ultrasonic measurements were used to characterize the fat melting. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased with the increase in temperature, showing four different sections (0-4 degrees C, 4-10 degrees C, 10-20 degrees C and 20-24 degrees C). Ultrasonic velocity was related (R(2)=0.99) to the percentage of melted fat (%MEF) showing an increase of 5.4 ms(-1) for 1% increase of melted fat (%MEF above 60%). The thermal history did not affect the ultrasonic measurements from 10 to 25 degrees C and, consequently, this range was the most suitable for classifying Iberian dry-cured products with different genetics and feeding backgrounds. Ultrasonic measurements could be a reliable technique to estimate the %MEF and subsequently the related sensory attributes in Iberian dry-cured ham at 10-25 degrees C, which is the common temperature range for the consumption of Iberian dry-cured products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anethole-flavored biscuits with different compositions (fat, flour, and sugar form) were produced using an experimental design.
Both fat content and sugar form had a significant effect (P = 0.05) on mechanical properties of the biscuits. Anethole release from biscuits was monitored in vitro and in vivo and was
strongly affected by the biscuit composition, with some evidence of fat–aroma interactions, as well as an effect of sugar
form. By comparing in vitro and in vivo aroma release measurements, the biscuit composition was identified as the major factor
determining aroma release in vivo, rather than potential differences in oral breakdown of the biscuit matrix. Textural and
sensory analyses of the biscuits confirmed that composition affected attributes such as aroma and sweetness and that interactions
existed between some attributes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors deal with the solution of a thyristor chopper for the speed control of a DC series motor for mine locomotive drives. They describe the basic functions and a way of driving of the chopper. The differences between chopper control and relay contactor control are underlined. The chopper's basis functions and its driving equipment are illustrated with the results of tests carried out on the constructed device.
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