A Study on the Frequency of Olfactory Dysfunction
ABSTRACT Goals of the study were to evaluate the frequency of olfactory dysfunction in a large representative population without sinonasal complaints and to investigate the extent to which general pathological conditions, medications, and aging influence olfaction.
Results based on an odor identification test ("Sniffin' Sticks") were reported from 1240 subjects. The subjects presented themselves to an otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic with relatively mild and transitory complaints unrelated to the upper airways. A detailed otorhinolaryngological examination in combination with a standardized interview further ascertained that these patients had no rhinological problems or symptoms relating to sinonasal disease.
Apart from the confirmation of the effects of age, gender, and certain otorhinolaryngological diseases on the sense of smell, the study results revealed that certain general diseases (liver diseases, nonotolaryngological cancers) appear to influence olfactory function, whereas other diseases or disorders have little or no impact on olfaction (hypertension, cardiovascular problems).
The data in the study revealed that olfactory dysfunction among subjects under 65 years of age is more frequent than previously reported.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated everyday odor experiences in 55 people (14-75 years old) who rated their sense of smell as far better than average. Compared to 55 gender- and age-matched controls, the self-reported hyperosmics scored higher on the Affective Impact of Odor Scale, rated negative consequences and unpleasant memories due to odors as more likely, rated environmental odors as more annoying, reported increased sensitivity to specific odors more frequently, paid more attention to odors, and agreed more strongly that their sense of smell has caused inconvenience to them. Based on these data, subjective hyperosmia is associated with primarily negative odor-related experiences.Journal of Health Psychology 03/2013; 19(7). DOI:10.1177/1359105313481080 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Although risk factors for olfactory dysfunction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have been examined, most studies did not distinguish between classified eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) and noneosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (NECRS). The incidence of eosinophilic disease in Japan differs from that in the West. Thus, when olfaction in CRS is investigated, ECRS and NECRS should be examined separately. In the present study, we examined the clinical characteristics associated with olfactory dysfunction in Japanese patients with ECRS and NECRS enrolled in a large multicenter, prospective cohort study. METHODS: Olfactory examination results, demographic data, clinical factors, and comorbidity data were analyzed for 418 patients with CRS at 3 tertiary care centers. We used T&T olfactometry, intravenous olfactory test (the Alinamin test) and Likert scale to assess subjects' olfactory function. Data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Olfactory dysfunction was more severe and more prevalent in ECRS than in NECRS. We found that olfactory cleft polyps (odds ratio [OR], 3.24), ethmoid opacification (OR, 2.64), asthma (OR, 2.29), current smoking (OR, 1.74) and age ≥50 years (OR, 1.66) were associated with olfactory dysfunction in CRS. Ethmoid opacification (OR, 3.09) and olfactory cleft polyps (OR, 3.05) were associated with olfactory dysfunction in NECRS. Olfactory cleft polyps (OR, 3.98), current smoking (OR, 2.67), IgE ≥400IU/ml (OR, 2.65), ethmoid opacification (OR, 2.51), and asthma (OR, 2.34) were associated with olfactory dysfunction in ECRS. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory dysfunction was more severe and prevalent in ECRS than in NECRS. Physician should pay attention to these clinical findings to diagnose olfactory dysfunction, especially in ECRS, and should provide appropriate explanation, guidance, and care. In addition, smokers should be advised to stop smoking to help prevent olfactory dysfunction.Auris, nasus, larynx 02/2013; 40(5). DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2012.12.005 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Large population-based studies using validated olfactory tests have shown that about 20 % of individuals aged 20 to 90 years have impaired olfactory function. The goal of the present study was the development of an easy to administer and reliable questionnaire to assess self-reported olfactory functioning in patients suffering from problems with the sense of smell. A cross-sectional, psychometric study using factor analysis and internal consistency methodology was performed to develop the 12-item questionnaire for the assessment of self-reported olfactory functioning and olfaction-related quality of life (ASOF). Discriminative validity of the three ASOF scales was assessed by comparing healthy controls and patients with problems with the sense of smell. Three hundred and thirteen normal controls with intact olfaction and 35 patients with olfactory dysfunction were included. All subjects included in the study were evaluated for olfactory dysfunction by means of the Sniffin’ Sticks. The ASOF can be subdivided into three domains: the one-item subjective olfactory capability scale (SOC), the five-item self-reported capability of perceiving specific odors scale (SRP), and the six-item olfactory-related quality of life (ORQ) scale. All three scales discriminated significantly between healthy controls and patients. The ASOF measures subjective olfactory functioning reliably and consistently, in normosmic subjects as well as in patients with olfactory dysfunction. The ASOF is a clinically relevant and practical diagnostic tool with very good psychometric properties. This new questionnaire may be helpful in the comprehensive evaluation of patients with olfactory disorders.Chemosensory Perception 12/2012; 5(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s12078-012-9127-7 · 1.37 Impact Factor