Article

A Study on the Frequency of Olfactory Dysfunction

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 2.03). 11/2004; 114(10):1764-9. DOI: 10.1097/00005537-200410000-00017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Goals of the study were to evaluate the frequency of olfactory dysfunction in a large representative population without sinonasal complaints and to investigate the extent to which general pathological conditions, medications, and aging influence olfaction.
Prospective.
Results based on an odor identification test ("Sniffin' Sticks") were reported from 1240 subjects. The subjects presented themselves to an otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic with relatively mild and transitory complaints unrelated to the upper airways. A detailed otorhinolaryngological examination in combination with a standardized interview further ascertained that these patients had no rhinological problems or symptoms relating to sinonasal disease.
Apart from the confirmation of the effects of age, gender, and certain otorhinolaryngological diseases on the sense of smell, the study results revealed that certain general diseases (liver diseases, nonotolaryngological cancers) appear to influence olfactory function, whereas other diseases or disorders have little or no impact on olfaction (hypertension, cardiovascular problems).
The data in the study revealed that olfactory dysfunction among subjects under 65 years of age is more frequent than previously reported.

2 Followers
 · 
140 Views
  • Source
    • "It seems that there is a negative relationship between dopaminergic neurons and the performance of olfactory tasks. Healthy females have a better olfactory performance than males(Doty et al., 1984; Yousem et al., 1999; Landis et al., 2004), and are expected to have less dopaminergic neurons, a notion that was supported by our results. "
  • Source
    • "It seems that there is a negative relationship between dopaminergic neurons and the performance of olfactory tasks. Healthy females have a better olfactory performance than males(Doty et al., 1984; Yousem et al., 1999; Landis et al., 2004), and are expected to have less dopaminergic neurons, a notion that was supported by our results. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dopamine is one of the major brain neurotransmitters, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia cause motor deficits in Parkinson's disease. We proposed that the difficulty in olfaction observed in the elderly may be due to an alteration in the number of dopaminergic neurons. Sections were taken from olfactory bulbs of post-mortem tissue specimens of 13 humans, males and females, aged from 19 to 63 years (≤35 and ≥50 years), with no history of neurological disorders. The tissues were fixed, embedded, cut on a freezing microtome, and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase(AADC) antibodies. The number of positive neurons was counted. TH- and AADC-positive cells were present in the glomerular layer. There was no significant difference between the numbers of TH- and AADC-positive cells, in males and females, and in young and elderly individuals. The quantitative analysis revealed that the number of TH- and AADC-positive neurons was significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in the number of TH- and AADC-positive neurons in the olfactory bulbs of the elderly compared with young individuals (P < 0.05). Factors such as gender and age may affect the number of dopaminergic neurons, and there is a correlation between increased dopaminergic neurons and olfactory performance. Moreover, the increase in dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb of the elderly may indicate the existence of rostral migratory stream in adult humans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.07.003 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "for prevalence of anosmia and hyposmia are reported in literature (e.g. for representative Swedish and German samples by Brämerson et al. (2004) and Landis et al. (2004), respectively ), no estimate for frequency of hyperosmia , to our knowledge, has been published. Hyperosmics have superior sensitivity to odorants, that is, they are capable of detecting odorous compounds at concentrations that are not detected by most people. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated everyday odor experiences in 55 people (14-75 years old) who rated their sense of smell as far better than average. Compared to 55 gender- and age-matched controls, the self-reported hyperosmics scored higher on the Affective Impact of Odor Scale, rated negative consequences and unpleasant memories due to odors as more likely, rated environmental odors as more annoying, reported increased sensitivity to specific odors more frequently, paid more attention to odors, and agreed more strongly that their sense of smell has caused inconvenience to them. Based on these data, subjective hyperosmia is associated with primarily negative odor-related experiences.
    Journal of Health Psychology 07/2014; 19(7):897-906. DOI:10.1177/1359105313481080 · 1.88 Impact Factor
Show more