A depressive symptom scale for the California Psychological Inventory: construct validation of the CPI-D.
ABSTRACT To facilitate life span research on depressive symptomatology, a depressive symptom scale for the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is needed. The authors constructed such a scale (the CPI-D) and compared its psychometric properties with 2 widely used self-report depression scales: the Beck Depression Inventory and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Construct validity of the CPI-D was examined in 3 studies. Study 1 established content validity, classifying CPI-D items into Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition depressive symptoms. Study 2 used 3 large samples to gather evidence for reliability and validity: correlational analyses demonstrated alpha reliability and convergent and discriminant validity; factor analysis provided evidence for discriminant validity with anxiety; and regression analyses demonstrated comparative validity with existing standard PI scales. Study 3 used clinician ratings of depression and anxiety as criteria for external validity.
- SourceAvailable from: Gislane Melo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop and validate the Depression Scale for the Elderly. An explanatory theoretical model was developed for depression, consisting of three categories: cognitive, affective, and somato-motor. The items elaborated thusly were submitted to semantic analysis and judges. The pilot instrument was applied to 340 subjects, 88% of whom were females, mostly with complete primary education (67.9%), and a mean age of 63.74 (SD = 6.87) years. The sample also responded to the Beck Depression Index (BDI). Validation of the scale was based on factor analyses (Principal Axis Factoring) and analysis of the items' internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Multiple regressions evaluated the predictive power of the factors in the depression scale for the elderly on the final BDI score. Scale validation demonstrated that the depression scale for the elderly is composed of two factors: cognitive-affective and somato-motor, which explain 53% of the BDI (convergent validity). One can thus state that the depression scale for the elderly consists of factors that assess different aspects of the depression construct (factor validity), which present internal consistency indices within the psychometric standards.Cadernos de Saúde Pública 06/2008; 24(5):975-82. · 0.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Compassion has emerged as an important construct in studies of mental health and psychological therapy. Although an increasing number of studies have explored relationships between compassion and different facets of psychopathology there has as yet been no systematic review or synthesis of the empirical literature. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on compassion and mental health. We identified 20 samples from 14 eligible studies. All studies used the Neff Self Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b). We employed meta-analysis to explore associations between self-compassion and psychopathology using random effects analyses of Fisher's Z correcting for attenuation arising from scale reliability. We found a large effect size for the relationship between compassion and psychopathology of r=-0.54 (95% CI=-0.57 to -0.51; Z=-34.02; p<.0001). Heterogeneity was significant in the analysis. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. Compassion is an important explanatory variable in understanding mental health and resilience. Future work is needed to develop the evidence base for compassion in psychopathology, and explore correlates of compassion and psychopathology.Clinical psychology review 06/2012; 32(6):545-52. · 7.18 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present research developed a new, multi-step approach for hierarchically assessing the Big Five personality domains from a large and diverse pool of existing questionnaire items: those of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). First, the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) structural model was used to organize the CPI item pool in Big Five factor space. Using the 10 resulting CPI-AB5C circumplexes as starting points, 16 facet scales were then developed to assess specific personality characteristics within the broad Big Five domains. Finally, principal components analysis with validimax rotation was used to score the five domains from the facet scales. In three independent samples, the resulting CPI-Big Five measure demonstrated strong reliability, convergence with self- and peer-reports, and discriminant validity. Availability of the new measure brings more than a half-century’s worth of archival CPI data to bear on contemporary research questions about the Big Five. Additionally, the process of developing the CPI-Big Five measure illustrates some of the challenges that may arise when attempting to assess new psychological constructs from existing measures, as well as methods for addressing such challenges.Journal of Research in Personality. 01/2009;