Rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene (RET/PTC) and BRAF gene mutations are the major genetic alterations in the etiopathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have analyzed a series of 118 benign and malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors for RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF gene mutations. Oncogenic rearrangements of RET proto-oncogene was revealed by semiquantitative RT-PCR of simultaneously generated fragments corresponding to tyrosine kinase (TK) and extracellular RET domains. The clear quantitative shift toward the TK fragment is indicative for the presence of RET rearrangements. The overall frequency of RET/PTC rearrangements in PTC was 14% (12 of 85), including 7 RET/PTC1, 2 RET/PTC3, 1 deltaRFP/RET and 2 apparently uncharacterized rearrangements. The most common T1796A transversion in BRAF gene was detected in 55 of 91 PTC (60%) using mutant-allele-specific PCR. We also identified two additional mutations: the substitution G1753A (E585K) and a case of 12-bp deletion in BRAF exon 15. Moreover, there was no overlap between PTC harboring BRAF and RET/PTC mutations, which altogether were present in 75.8% of cases (69 of 91). Taken together, our observations are consistent with the notion that BRAF mutations appear to be an alternative pathway to oncogenic MAPK activation in PTCs without RET/PTC activation. Neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF muta-tions were detected in any of 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 11 follicular adenomas and 13 nodular goiters. The high prevalence of BRAF mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements in PTCs and the specificity of these alterations to PTC make them potentially important markers for the preoperative tumor diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A single hotspot mutation at nucleotide 1799 of the BRAF gene has been identified as the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), with a prevalence of 29-83%.
To use a PCR assay to molecularly characterise the BRAF activating point mutation in a series of PTC and benign thyroid cases and correlate the mutation results with histological findings.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections were evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation using LightCycler PCR with allele-specific fluorescent probe melting curve analysis (LCPCR).
42 (37 PTC; 5 benign) surgical tissue samples were analysed for the BRAF V600E activating point mutation. Using LCPCR and direct DNA sequencing, the BRAF mutation was identified in 23/37 (62.2%) PTC FFPE samples. DNA sequencing results demonstrated confirmation of the mutation.
Detection of BRAF-activating mutations in PTC suggests new approaches to management and treatment of this disease that may prove worthwhile. Identification of the BRAF V600E activating mutation in routine FFPE pathology samples by a rapid laboratory method such as LCPCR could have significant value.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the formation of fusion genes are common events in carcinogenesis. There are more than 440 known fusion genes found in both malignant and benign tumors. The mechanism of transcription induced chimerism (TIC) contributes to fusion transcripts in normal human tissues. However, there is no clarity about the role of TIC in carcinogenesis. Hybrid proteins resulting from chimeric genes regarded as ideal markers which are specific for disease entities can be potential targets for the treatment due to their key roles in malignant transformation. In some tumors fusion genes may play primary role, and in the others may represent an additional mechanism during subclonal selection. The aim is to briefly review and discuss the occurrence and biologic relevance of chimeric genes in hematologic malignant diseases, sarcomas and epithelial neoplasms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Activating somatic mutation of the BRAF (V600E) has been identified as the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a variable frequency (32-87%) in different series by different methods. The BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with various clinicopathological parameters. The mutation is an important factor for the management of the PTC patients. The objective of this study was to detect the BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTCs by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time PCR and to analyze the results with clinicopathological parameters.
We performed genetic analysis of BRAF (V600E) by PNA clamp real-time PCR in 211 PTCs in Korea, stratified by clinicopathological parameters.
The BRAF (V600E) mutation was detected in 90% of PTC cases, and it occurred significantly more often in female patients than in male patients (p = 0.001). The clinicopathological parameters of age, tumor size, and disease stage were not associated with the BRAF (V600E) mutation, while extrathyroid invasion (p = 0.031), lymph nodal metastasis (p = 0.002), and tumor multiplicity (p = 0.020) were.
The prevalence (90%) of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in this study is the highest ever reported, confirming the key role of this mutation in PTC tumorigenesis. The BRAF (V600E) mutation was associated with aggressive clinical behaviors including extrathyroid invasion, lymph nodal metastasis and tumor multifocality. The PNA clamp real-time PCR method for the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection is sensitive and is applicable in a clinical setting.
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