Article

Repulsion and attraction of axons by semaphorin3D are mediated by different neuropilins in vivo.

Department of Zoology and Anatomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 10/2004; 24(39):8428-35. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2349-04.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Class 3 semaphorins are known to repel and/or sometimes attract axons; however, their role in guiding developing axons in the CNS in vivo is still essentially unknown. We investigated the role of Semaphorin3D (Sema3D) in the formation of the early axon pathways in the zebrafish CNS. Morpholino knock-down shows that Sema3D is essential for the correct formation of two early axon pathways. Sema3D appears to guide axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nucMLF) by repulsion and modulation of fasciculation. In contrast, Sema3D appears to be attractive to telencephalic neurons that form the anterior commissure (AC). Knock-down of Neuropilin-1A (Npn-1A) phenocopied the effects of Sema3D knock-down on the nucMLF axons, and knock-down of either Npn-1A or Npn-2B phenocopied the defects of the AC. Furthermore, simultaneous partial knock-down experiments demonstrated genetic interactions among Sema3D, Npn-1A, and Npn-2B. Together, these data support the hypothesis that Sema3D may act as a repellent through receptors containing Npn-1A and as an attractant via receptors containing Npn-1A and Npn-2B.

0 Followers
 · 
88 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the embryonic vertebrate brain, early born neurons establish highly stereotyped embryonic axonal tracts along which the neuronal interconnections form. To understand the mechanism underlying neuron axonal pathfinding within the embryonic scaffold of axon tracts, we studied zebrafish anterior dorsal telencephalic (ADt) neuron development. While previous studies suggest the ADt neuronal axons extend along a commissural tract [anterior commissure (AC)] and a descending ipsilateral tract [supraoptic tract (SOT)], it is unclear whether individual ADt neuronal axons choose specific projection paths at the intersection between the AC and the SOT. We labeled individual ADt neurons using a forebrain-specific promoter to drive expression of fluorescent proteins. We found the ADt axonal projection patterns were heterogeneous and correlated with their soma positions. Our results suggest that cell intrinsic differences along the dorsal ventral axis of the telencephalon regulate the axonal projection choices. Next, we determined that the guidance receptors roundabout2 (Robo2) and deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) were differentially expressed in the ADt neurons. We showed that knocking down Robo2 function by injecting antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abolished the ipsilateral SOT originating from the ADt neurons. Knocking down Dcc function did not prevent formation of the AC and the SOT. In contrast, the AC was specifically reduced when Netrin1 function was knocked down. Further mechanistic studies suggested that Robo2 responded to the repellent Slit signals and suppressed the attractive Netrin signals. These findings demonstrate how Robo2-Slit and Dcc-Netrin coordinate the axonal projection choices of the developing neurons in the vertebrate forebrain.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2012; 32(36):12589-602. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6518-11.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Class 3 Semaphorins (Sema3s) are a sub-family of proteins whose known biological roles are varied and growing. The mechanism of action of the Sema3s requires binding to transmembrane receptors that comprise heteromeric complexes of Neuropilins, Plexins and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). However, knowledge of the receptor components of the Sema3s remains incomplete, and there may be receptor components which are as yet undiscovered. The receptor complexes of the Sema3s share receptor components with each other, and it is the specific combination of these components within a heteromeric complex that is thought to give rise to selective binding and signalling for individual Sema3s. This crosstalk makes it experimentally difficult to define a single holoreceptor for each Sema3. Furthermore, the receptor composition for a given Sema3 may differ between cell types, and change as a function of developmental state or pathological situation. Nevertheless, there are at least some known differences in the constitutive structure of the receptors for the Sema3s. For example in neural cells, Sema3a and Sema3f signal through different Neuropilins (Nrp1 and Nrp2 respectively) and L1cam only appears important for Sema3a signaling, while Nrcam forms a complex with Nrp2. Further complexity arises from crosstalk of other families of ligands (e.g., VEGF) with Sema3 receptor components. Thus the Sema3s, which have been shown as antagonists for each other, can also act as antagonists for other families of molecules. This review compiles experimental evidence describing the receptor components for the Sema3s, detailing the current state of knowledge of which components are important for signaling of each Sema3 before going on to consider possible future directions for the field.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 07/2012; 6:28. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2012.00028 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling plays crucial roles in neural development. We previously identified Neucrin, a neural-specific secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, in humans and mice. Neucrin has one cysteine-rich domain, in which the positions of 10 cysteine residues are similar to those in the second cysteine-rich domain of Dickkopfs, secreted Wnt antagonists. Here, we have identified zebrafish neucrin to understand its roles in vivo. Zebrafish Neucrin also has one cysteine-rich domain, which is significantly similar to that of mouse Neucrin. Zebrafish neucrin was also predominantly expressed in developing neural tissues. To examine roles of neucrin in neural development, we analyzed neucrin knockdown embryos. Neural development in zebrafish embryos was impaired by the knockdown of neucrin. The knockdown of neucrin caused increased expression of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes. In contrast, overexpression of neucrin reduced the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes. The knockdown of neucrin affected specification of dorsal region in the midbrain and hindbrain. The knockdown of neucrin also suppressed neuronal differentiation and caused increased cell proliferation and apoptosis in developing neural tissues. Neucrin is a unique secreted Wnt antagonist that is predominantly expressed in developing neural tissues and plays roles in neural development in zebrafish.
    Mechanisms of development 01/2012; 128(11-12):577-90. DOI:10.1016/j.mod.2012.01.001 · 2.24 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from