Blocking the anoxic depolarization protects without functional compromise following simulated stroke in cortical brain slices.
ABSTRACT Within 2 min of stroke onset, neurons and glia in brain regions most deprived of blood (the ischemic core) undergo a sudden and profound loss of membrane potential caused by failure of the Na+/K+ ATPase pump. This anoxic depolarization (AD) represents a collapse in membrane ion selectivity that causes acute neuronal injury because neurons simply cannot survive the energy demands of repolarization while deprived of oxygen and glucose. In vivo and in live brain slices, the AD resists blockade by antagonists of neurotransmitter receptors (including glutamate) or by ion channel blockers. Our neuroprotective strategy is to identify AD blockers that minimally affect neuronal function. If the conductance underlying AD is not normally active, its selective blockade should not alter neuronal excitability. Imaging changes in light transmittance in live neocortical and hippocampal slices reveal AD onset, propagation, and subsequent dendritic damage. Here we identify several sigma-1 receptor ligands that block the AD in slices that are pretreated with 10-30 microM of ligand. Blockade prevents subsequent cell swelling, dendritic damage, and loss of evoked field potentials recorded in layers II/III of neocortex and in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Even when AD onset is merely delayed, electrophysiological recovery is markedly improved. With ligand treatment, evoked axonal conduction and synaptic transmission remain intact. The large nonselective conductance that drives AD is still unidentified but represents a prime upstream target for suppressing acute neuronal damage arising during the first critical minutes of stroke. Sigma receptor ligands provide insight to better define the properties of the channel responsible for anoxic depolarization. Video clips of anoxic depolarization and spreading depression can be viewed at http://anatomy.queensu.ca/faculty/andrew.cfm.
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ABSTRACT: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is closely associated with important pathologies including stroke, seizures and migraine. The mechanisms underlying SD in its various forms are still incompletely understood. Here we describe SD-like events in an invertebrate model, the ventilatory central pattern generator (CPG) of locusts. Using K(+) -sensitive microelectrodes, we measured extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) in the metathoracic neuropile of the CPG while monitoring CPG output electromyographically from muscle 161 in the second abdominal segment to investigate the role K(+) in failure of neural circuit operation induced by various stressors. Failure of ventilation in response to different stressors (hyperthermia, anoxia, ATP depletion, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase impairment, K(+) injection) was associated with a disturbance of CNS ion homeostasis that shares the characteristics of CSD and SD-like events in vertebrates. Hyperthermic failure was preconditioned by prior heat shock (3 h, 45 degrees C) and induced-thermotolerance was associated with an increase in the rate of clearance of extracellular K(+) that was not linked to changes in ATP levels or total Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. Our findings suggest that SD-like events in locusts are adaptive to terminate neural network operation and conserve energy during stress and that they can be preconditioned by experience. We propose that they share mechanisms with CSD in mammals suggesting a common evolutionary origin.PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(12):e1366. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Dibucaine mitigates spreading depolarization in human neocortical slices and prevents acute dendritic injury in the ischemic rodent neocortex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spreading depolarizations that occur in patients with malignant stroke, subarachnoid/intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury are known to facilitate neuronal damage in metabolically compromised brain tissue. The dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis caused by propagating spreading depolarizations results in neuronal and astroglial swelling. In essence, swelling is the initial response and a sign of the acute neuronal injury that follows if energy deprivation is maintained. Choosing spreading depolarizations as a target for therapeutic intervention, we have used human brain slices and in vivo real-time two-photon laser scanning microscopy in the mouse neocortex to study potentially useful therapeutics against spreading depolarization-induced injury. We have shown that anoxic or terminal depolarization, a spreading depolarization wave ignited in the ischemic core where neurons cannot repolarize, can be evoked in human slices from pediatric brains during simulated ischemia induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation or by exposure to ouabain. Changes in light transmittance (LT) tracked terminal depolarization in time and space. Though spreading depolarizations are notoriously difficult to block, terminal depolarization onset was delayed by dibucaine, a local amide anesthetic and sodium channel blocker. Remarkably, the occurrence of ouabain-induced terminal depolarization was delayed at a concentration of 1 µM that preserves synaptic function. Moreover, in vivo two-photon imaging in the penumbra revealed that, though spreading depolarizations did still occur, spreading depolarization-induced dendritic injury was inhibited by dibucaine administered intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg in a mouse stroke model. Dibucaine mitigated the effects of spreading depolarization at a concentration that could be well-tolerated therapeutically. Hence, dibucaine is a promising candidate to protect the brain from ischemic injury with an approach that does not rely on the complete abolishment of spreading depolarizations.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22351. · 4.09 Impact Factor