Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Bright act as dominant negative proteins and interfere with immunoglobulin transactivation.
ABSTRACT Bright, for B cell regulator of immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription, binds A+T-rich sequences in the intronic enhancer regions of the murine heavy chain locus and 5'-flanking sequences of some variable heavy chain promoters. Most resting B cells do not express Bright; however, it is induced after stimulation with antigen or polyclonal mitogens. Bright activation results in up-regulation of mu transcription; however, it is not clear whether Bright function is critical for normal B cell development. To begin to address Bright function during B cell development, seven mutated forms of Bright were produced. Five of the seven mutants revealed little or no DNA binding activity. Furthermore, because Bright binds DNA as a dimer, two of the mutants formed complexes with wild type Bright and acted in a dominant negative fashion. Dominant negative Bright prevented the up-regulation of mu transcription in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with wild type Bright. These data identify regions within Bright that are required for the DNA binding activity of Bright and for its function as a transcription factor.
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ABSTRACT: The ARID (A-T Rich Interaction Domain) is a helix-turn-helix motif-based DNA-binding domain, conserved in all eukaryotes and diagnostic of a family that includes 15 distinct human proteins with important roles in development, tissue-specific gene expression and proliferation control. The 15 human ARID family proteins can be divided into seven subfamilies based on the degree of sequence identity between individual members. Most ARID family members have not been characterized with respect to their DNA-binding behavior, but it is already apparent that not all ARIDs conform to the pattern of binding AT-rich sequences. To understand better the divergent characteristics of the ARID proteins, we undertook a survey of DNA-binding properties across the entire ARID family. The results indicate that the majority of ARID subfamilies (i.e. five out of seven) bind DNA without obvious sequence preference. DNA-binding affinity also varies somewhat between subfamilies. Site-specific mutagenesis does not support suggestions made from structure analysis that specific amino acids in Loop 2 or Helix 5 are the main determinants of sequence specificity. Most probably, this is determined by multiple interacting differences across the entire ARID structure.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2005; 33(1):66-80. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: SUMOylation of DRIL1 directs its transcriptional activity towards leukocyte lineage-specific genes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DRIL1 is an ARID family transcription factor that can immortalize primary mouse fibroblasts, bypass RAS(V12)-induced cellular senescence and collaborate with RAS(V12) or MYC in mediating oncogenic transformation. It also activates immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription and engages in heterodimer formation with E2F to stimulate E2F-dependent transcription. Little, however, is known about the regulation of DRIL1 activity. Recently, DRIL1 was found to interact with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, but the functional relevance of this association has not been assessed. Here, we show that DRIL1 is sumoylated both in vitro and in vivo at lysine 398. Moreover, we provide evidence that PIASy functions as a specific SUMO E3-ligase for DRIL1 and promotes its sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, consistent with the subnuclear localization of PIASy in the Matrix-Associated Region (MAR), SUMO-modified DRIL1 species are found exclusively in the MAR fraction. This post-translational modification interferes neither with the subcellular localization nor the DNA-binding activity of the protein. In contrast, DRIL1 sumoylation impairs its interaction with E2F1 in vitro and modifies its transcriptional activity in vivo, driving transcription of subset of genes regulating leukocyte fate. Taken together, these results identify sumoylation as a novel post-translational modification of DRIL1 that represents an important mechanism for targeting and modulating DRIL1 transcriptional activity.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5542. · 4.09 Impact Factor