Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Bright act as dominant negative proteins and interfere with immunoglobulin transactivation.

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 N. E. 13 Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 01/2005; 279(50):52465-72. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M403028200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bright, for B cell regulator of immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription, binds A+T-rich sequences in the intronic enhancer regions of the murine heavy chain locus and 5'-flanking sequences of some variable heavy chain promoters. Most resting B cells do not express Bright; however, it is induced after stimulation with antigen or polyclonal mitogens. Bright activation results in up-regulation of mu transcription; however, it is not clear whether Bright function is critical for normal B cell development. To begin to address Bright function during B cell development, seven mutated forms of Bright were produced. Five of the seven mutants revealed little or no DNA binding activity. Furthermore, because Bright binds DNA as a dimer, two of the mutants formed complexes with wild type Bright and acted in a dominant negative fashion. Dominant negative Bright prevented the up-regulation of mu transcription in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with wild type Bright. These data identify regions within Bright that are required for the DNA binding activity of Bright and for its function as a transcription factor.

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    ABSTRACT: ARID3a/Bright is a DNA-binding protein that was originally discovered for its ability to increase immunoglobulin transcription in antigen-activated B cells. It interacts with DNA as a dimer through its ARID, or A/T-rich interacting domain. In association with other proteins, ARID3a increased transcription of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and led to improved chromatin accessibility of the heavy chain enhancer. Constitutive expression of ARID3a in B lineage cells resulted in autoantibody production, suggesting its regulation is important. Abnormal ARID3a expression has also been associated with increased proliferative capacity and malignancy. Roles for ARID3a in addition to interactions with the immunoglobulin locus were suggested by transgenic and knockout mouse models. Over-expression of ARID3a resulted in skewing of mature B cell subsets and altered gene expression patterns of follicular B cells, whereas loss of function resulted in loss of B1 lineage B cells and defects in hematopoiesis. More recent studies showed that loss of ARID3a in adult somatic cells promoted developmental plasticity, alterations in gene expression patterns, and lineage fate decisions. Together, these data suggest new regulatory roles for ARID3a. The genes influenced by ARID3a are likely to play pivotal roles in lineage decisions, highlighting the importance of this understudied transcription factor.
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    ABSTRACT: We show here that singular loss of the Bright/Arid3A transcription factor leads to reprograming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and enhancement of standard four-factor (4F) reprogramming. Bright-deficient MEFs bypass senescence and, under standard embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture conditions, spontaneously form clones that in vitro express pluripotency markers, differentiate to all germ lineages, and in vivo form teratomas and chimeric mice. We demonstrate that BRIGHT binds directly to the promoter/enhancer regions of Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog to contribute to their repression in both MEFs and ESCs. Thus, elimination of the BRIGHT barrier may provide an approach for somatic cell reprogramming.
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    ABSTRACT: ARID is a DNA-binding domain involved in several transcriptional regulatory processes, including cell-cycle regulation and embryonic development. ARID domains are also targets of the Human Cancer Protein Interaction Network. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms related to conformational changes in the family of ARID domains. Thus, we have examined their structural dynamics to enrich the knowledge on this important family of regulatory proteins. In particular, we used an approach that integrates atomistic simulations and methods inspired by graph theory. To relate these properties to protein function we studied both the free and DNA-bound forms. The interaction with DNA not only stabilizes the conformations of the DNA-binding loops, but also strengthens pre-existing paths in the native ARID ensemble for long-range communication to those loops. Residues in helix 5 are identified as critical mediators for intramolecular communication to the DNA-binding regions. In particular, we identified a distal tyrosine that plays a key role in long-range communication to the DNA-binding loops and that is experimentally known to impair DNA-binding. Mutations at this tyrosine and in other residues of helix 5 are also demonstrated, by our approach, to affect the paths of communication to the DNA-binding loops and alter their native dynamics. Overall, our results are in agreement with a scenario in which ARID domains exist as an ensemble of substates, which are shifted by external perturbation, such as the interaction with DNA. Conformational changes at the DNA-binding loops are transmitted long-range by intramolecular paths, which have their heart in helix 5.
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