TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor, suppresses the progression of peritoneal fibrosis in mouse experimental model.
ABSTRACT In patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD), angiogenesis and vasculopathy are observed in the peritoneum, and the degree of vascularization correlates with the area of fibrotic tissue, suggesting the involvement of angiogenesis in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of TNP-470, an anti-angiogenic compound, on the development of peritoneal fibrosis induced by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG).
Peritoneal fibrosis was induced by injection of CG into peritoneal cavity of Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice. TNP-470 was injected subcutaneously with CG. Mice were sacrificed, and peritoneal tissues were dissected out at days eight and 16 after CG and TNP-470 injection. The expression patterns of CD31 (as a marker of endothelial cells), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), alpha-smooth muscle actin (as a marker of myofibroblasts), heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), type III collagen, F4/80 (as a marker of mice macrophages), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) were examined by immunohistochemistry.
CG-injected mice showed thickening of the submesothelial zone and increased number of vessels, myofibroblasts, and infiltrating macrophages. The expression levels of VEGF, type III collagen, and HSP47 were increased, and a large number of PCNA-positive cells and Cdk2-expressing cells were observed in the thickened submesothelial area. Treatment with TNP-470 suppressed the submesothelial zone thickening and reduced collagen III expression as well as angiogenesis. TNP-470 also decreased the number of VEGF-expressing cells, myofibroblasts, macrophages, PCNA-positive cells, and Cdk2-expressing cells.
Our results indicate the involvement of angiogenesis in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis, and suggest that TNP-470 may be potentially useful for the prevention of peritoneal fibrosis through inhibition of angiogenesis and suppression of myofibroblast proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: Renal structural abnormalities are known to precede the development of proteinuria, hypertension, and reduced renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes. The determinants of these early structural abnormalities are, however, largely unknown. The International Diabetic Nephropathy Study (IDNS) has recruited 243 children and adults (aged 10-40 years) in Montreal, Minneapolis, and Paris to identify and quantify these determinants. All study subjects were normotensive and had normal-to-high glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) and urinary albumin excretion rates (AERs) <100 microg/min at study entry. Only 8 of 243 had an AER > or =20 microg/min (microalbuminuria). Two renal biopsies are obtained at a 5-year intervals, with baseline and follow-up measures of renal function, blood pressure (BP), HbA(1c), plasma lipids, and AER. Herein, we examine the baseline renal biopsy morphometric findings in these subjects and in 87 kidney donor control subjects and explore the associations between findings and clinical and demographic variables. The principal morphometric abnormalities were increased glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width and fractional volume of mesangium [Vv(Mes/glom)] and mesangial matrix [Vv(MM/glom)]. The frequency of these abnormalities increased with increasing duration of diabetes but was observed as early as 2-8 years after onset. Diastolic BP (DBP), but not HbA(1c), was directly associated with these abnormalities. Elevated GFR was associated with only a small increase in peripheral glomerular capillary basement membrane filtration surface density. Center differences were detected in renal structural, renal functional, and BP parameters, especially between the Paris and North American centers. GBM width, Vv(Mes/glom), and Vv(MM/glom) are significantly increased even within a few years of onset of type 1 diabetes. These changes are detectable in normoalbuminuric patients and are related to duration, BP, and study site. Changes in these and other morphometric measures over 5-year follow-up should help clarify the roles of glycemia and other determinants of the rates of development of diabetic nephropathy lesions, as well as their relationships to early changes in BP, albumin excretion, and renal function.Diabetes 05/2002; 51(5):1580-7. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although renal hypertrophy is often associated with the progressive loss of renal function, the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. In both primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubules and NRK-52E cells (a renal epithelial cell line), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) converted epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced hyperplasia into hypertrophy. TGF beta did not affect EGF-induced increases in c-fos mRNA abundance or cyclin E protein abundance, but inhibited EGF-induced entry into S, G2, and M phases. EGF alone increased the amount of hyperphosphorylated (inactive) pRB; TGF beta blocked EGF-induced pRB phosphorylation, maintaining pRB in the active form. To determine the importance of active pRB in TGF beta-induced hypertrophy, NRK-52E cells were infected with SV40 large T antigen (which inactivates pRB and related proteins and p53), HPV16 E6 (which degrades p53), HPV16 E7 (which binds and inactivates pRB and related proteins), or both HPV16 E6 and E7. In SV40 large T antigen expressing clones, the magnitude of EGF + TGF beta-induced hypertrophy was inhibited and was inversely related to the magnitude of SV40 large T antigen expression. In the HPV16-infected cells, EGF + TGF beta-induced hypertrophy was inhibited in E7- and E6E7-expressing, but not E6-expressing cells. These results suggest a requirement for active pRB in the development of EGF + TGF beta-induced renal epithelial cell hypertrophy. We suggest a model of renal cell hypertrophy mediated by EGF-induced entry into the cell cycle with TGF beta-induced blockade at G1/S, the latter due to maintained activity of pRB or a related protein.The Journal of Cell Biology 05/1995; 129(1):245-54. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that subtotal renal ablation is associated with an early phase of mesangial cell proliferation. Because the mechanism(s) responsible for this response have not been elucidated, the study presented here sought to determine if changes in expression of positive cell cycle regulators, including pRb, cyclin E, and cdk2, occurred in the glomerulus during the early period of compensatory renal hypertrophy that follows 5/6 renal ablation. A first group of rats underwent sham operation and served as the control group. A second group of rats underwent 5/6 renal ablation. Ninety-six hours after subtotal ablation, protein was extracted from sieved glomeruli for Western blot analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and retinoblastoma protein expression (pRb). RNA was extracted from sieved glomeruli for Northern blot analysis of cyclin E and cdk2 mRNA levels, and renal cortical tissue was subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA. On average, one PCNA-positive nucleus was present every 22 glomerular profiles in normal rats. The number of PCNA-positive nuclei increased fivefold in glomeruli, 96 h after renal ablation (P < 0.05). pRb was present only in the unphosphorylated state in normal glomeruli, but the increase in PCNA was accompanied by the appearance of phosphorylated pRb in remnant glomeruli. mRNA levels for cyclin E increased twofold in remnant glomeruli, whereas mRNA levels for cdk2 were unchanged. It was concluded that renal ablation leads to cell cycle progression in the glomerulus and an increase in the G1 cyclin, cyclin E, is associated with the appearance of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/1997; 8(3):368-75. · 8.99 Impact Factor