[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the tobacco industry's interest and intentions driving its nicotine analogue research.
Review of internal tobacco industry documents regarding nicotine analogues released as part of the Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco industry and US state governments in 1998.
The tobacco industry investigated nicotine analogues extensively. Four principal areas of interest are evident. First, research on tobacco products was directed towards greater understanding of nicotine pharmacology, how to screen for potential analogues and how to separate the central and peripheral effects of nicotine. Secondly, interest lay in the potential for analogues to replace nicotine in order to create more 'desirable' products and to circumvent anticipated nicotine regulation. Thirdly, interest lay in potential pharmaceutical applications for analogues such as treatments for neurological disorders. Finally, there was interest in the public relations potential of the therapeutic potential of analogues to reduce the demonization of nicotine, by allowing the industry to point to its beneficial uses.
With tobacco product and nicotine regulation being increasingly advocated in tobacco control it is important to understand the industry's interests in the potential role of nicotine analogues. Initial interest included using analogues as a means to circumvent regulation, but evidence suggests these plans were discarded due to fear that this may have instigated regulation of tobacco products. Nicotine analogue research has led to potential therapeutic uses for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and alarmingly for the industry, to a potential vaccine to prevent nicotine addiction.
Tobacco manufacturers should be obliged to declare all additives being used in tobacco products. Regulatory bodies should be aware that that there is a distinct possibility that the industry has discovered ways to circumvent future regulation of nicotine through the utilization of nicotine analogues. Any regulatory drafting should broaden the definition of nicotine in order to incorporate analogues into the scope of pharmacologically active substances being regulated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process of identifying carcinogens for purposes of health and safety regulation has been contested internationally. The U.S. government produces a "Report on Carcinogens" every two years, which lists known and likely human carcinogenic substances. In the late 1990s the tobacco industry responded to the proposed listing of secondhand smoke with a multi-part strategy. Despite industry efforts to challenge both the substance of the report and the agency procedures, environmental tobacco smoke was declared by the agency in 2000 to be a known human carcinogen. A subsequent lawsuit, launched by chemical interests but linked to the tobacco industry, failed, but it produced a particular legal precedent of judicial review that is favorable to all regulated industries. The authors argue that, in this case, tobacco industry regulation contradicts academic expectations of business regulatory victories. However, the tobacco industry's participation in the regulatory process influenced the process in favor of all regulated industry.
International Journal of Health Services 02/2006; 36(4):747-66. DOI:10.2190/A4MN-6WG5-J7TA-KQ00 · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One in three adults worldwide (>1.1 billion people) smokes; 80% live in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco use causes five million deaths each year and, if current smoking patterns continue, will kill 10 million persons annually by 2020. From 1970 to 2000, tobacco leaf production decreased by 36% in developed countries but more than doubled in developing countries. China is the world's leading producer and consumer of tobacco. Seven multinational tobacco companies dominate the world cigarette market, led by Altria, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco, which collectively manufacture more than 2 trillion cigarettes per year. Extensive knowledge exists about effective tobacco control interventions. However, dissemination of best practices and adoption and implementation of recommended policies are fragmentary. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (ratified by 140 countries as of October 1, 2006) provides a template outlining the ingredients for a comprehensive tobacco control campaign.
Annual Review of Public Health 02/2007; 28(1):171-94. DOI:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144033 · 6.63 Impact Factor
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