Time-lapse and cell ablation reveal the role of cell interactions in fly glia migration and proliferation
ABSTRACT Migration and proliferation have been mostly explored in culture systems or fixed preparations. We present a simple genetic model, the chains of glia moving along fly wing nerves, to follow such dynamic processes by time-lapse in the whole animal. We show that glia undergo extensive cytoskeleton and mitotic apparatus rearrangements during division and migration. Single cell labelling identifies different glia: pioneers with high filopodial, exploratory, activity and, less active followers. In combination with time-lapse, altering this cellular environment by genetic means or cell ablation has allowed to us define the role of specific cell-cell interactions. First, neurone-glia interactions are not necessary for glia motility but do affect the direction of migration. Second, repulsive interactions between glia control the extent of movement. Finally, autonomous cues control proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: One of the numerous functions of glial cells in Drosophila is the ensheathment of neurons to isolate them from the potassium-rich haemolymph, thereby establishing the blood-brain barrier. Peripheral nerves of flies are surrounded by three distinct glial cell types. Although all embryonic peripheral glia (ePG) have been identified on a single-cell level, their contribution to the three glial sheaths is not known. We used the Flybow system to label and identify each individual ePG in the living embryo and followed them into third instar larva. We demonstrate that all ePG persist until the end of larval development and some even to adulthood. We uncover the origin of all three glial sheaths and describe the larval differentiation of each peripheral glial cell in detail. Interestingly, just one ePG (ePG2) exhibits mitotic activity during larval stages, giving rise to up to 30 glial cells along a single peripheral nerve tract forming the outermost perineurial layer. The unique mitotic ability of ePG2 and the layer affiliation of additional cells were confirmed by in vivo ablation experiments and layer-specific block of cell cycle progression. The number of cells generated by this glial progenitor and hence the control of perineurial hyperplasia correlate with the length of the abdominal nerves. By contrast, the wrapping and subperineurial glia layers show enormous hypertrophy in response to larval growth. This characterisation of the embryonic origin and development of each glial sheath will facilitate functional studies, as they can now be addressed distinctively and genetically manipulated in the embryo.Development 07/2013; 140(17). DOI:10.1242/dev.093245 · 6.27 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Cell migration is a key mechanism during neural development as it allows cells to reach their final destination from their birthplace. In some cases, cells migrate in isolation, while in others they migrate in collectives, as chains, streams, clusters or sheets. The coordinated and timely process of collective migration eventually ensures the proper organization of the nervous system and its misregulation leads to severe diseases including neurological disorders. This review impinges upon the cellular and molecular interactions underlying collective cell migration in animal models, and highlights the recent advances made through in vivo analyses of the Drosophila wing glia.Journal of neurogenetics 04/2014; 28(3-4). DOI:10.3109/01677063.2014.896911 · 0.73 Impact Factor
Article: Do Pioneer Cells Exist?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most mathematical models of collective cell spreading make the standard assumption that the cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate are constants that do not vary across the cell population. Here we present a combined experimental and mathematical modeling study which aims to investigate how differences in the cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate amongst a population of cells can impact the collective behavior of the population. We present data from a three-dimensional transwell migration assay that suggests that the cell diffusivity of some groups of cells within the population can be as much as three times higher than the cell diffusivity of other groups of cells within the population. Using this information, we explore the consequences of explicitly representing this variability in a mathematical model of a scratch assay where we treat the total population of cells as two, possibly distinct, subpopulations. Our results show that when we make the standard assumption that all cells within the population behave identically we observe the formation of moving fronts of cells where both subpopulations are well-mixed and indistinguishable. In contrast, when we consider the same system where the two subpopulations are distinct, we observe a very different outcome where the spreading population becomes spatially organized with the more motile subpopulation dominating at the leading edge while the less motile subpopulation is practically absent from the leading edge. These modeling predictions are consistent with previous experimental observations and suggest that standard mathematical approaches, where we treat the cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate as constants, might not be appropriate.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85488. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085488 · 3.53 Impact Factor