Time-lapse and cell ablation reveal the role of cell interactions in fly glia migration and proliferation
ABSTRACT Migration and proliferation have been mostly explored in culture systems or fixed preparations. We present a simple genetic model, the chains of glia moving along fly wing nerves, to follow such dynamic processes by time-lapse in the whole animal. We show that glia undergo extensive cytoskeleton and mitotic apparatus rearrangements during division and migration. Single cell labelling identifies different glia: pioneers with high filopodial, exploratory, activity and, less active followers. In combination with time-lapse, altering this cellular environment by genetic means or cell ablation has allowed to us define the role of specific cell-cell interactions. First, neurone-glia interactions are not necessary for glia motility but do affect the direction of migration. Second, repulsive interactions between glia control the extent of movement. Finally, autonomous cues control proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: In adult olfactory nerves of mammals and moths, a network of glial cells ensheathes small bundles of olfactory receptor axons. In the developing antennal nerve (AN) of the moth Manduca sexta, the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) migrate from the olfactory sensory epithelium toward the antennal lobe. Here we explore developmental interactions between ORN axons and AN glial cells. During early stages in AN glial-cell migration, glial cells are highly dye coupled, dividing glia are readily found in the nerve and AN glial cells label strongly for glutamine synthetase. By the end of this period, dye-coupling is rare, glial proliferation has ceased, glutamine synthetase labeling is absent, and glial processes have begun to extend to enwrap bundles of axons, a process that continues throughout the remainder of metamorphic development. Whole-cell and perforated-patch recordings in vivo from AN glia at different stages of network formation revealed two potassium currents and an R-like calcium current. Chronic in vivo exposure to the R-type channel blocker SNX-482 halted or greatly reduced AN glial migration. Chronically blocking spontaneous Na-dependent activity by injection of tetrodotoxin reduced the glial calcium current implicating an activity-dependent interaction between ORNs and glial cells in the development of glial calcium currents.Neuron Glia Biology 09/2011; 6(4):245-61. DOI:10.1017/S1740925X11000081 · 6.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal tissues and organs are comprised of several types of cells, which are often arranged in a well-ordered pattern. The posterior part of the Drosophila wing margin is covered with a double row of long hairs, which are equally and alternately derived from the dorsal and ventral sides of the wing, exhibiting a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. How this geometrically regular pattern is formed has not been fully understood. In this study, we show that this zigzag pattern is created by rearrangement of wing margin cells along the dorsoventral boundary flanked by the double row of hair cells during metamorphosis. This cell rearrangement is induced by selective apoptosis of wing margin cells that are spatially separated from hair cells. As a result of apoptosis, the remaining wing margin cells are rearranged in a well-ordered manner, which shapes corrugated lateral sides of both dorsal and ventral edges to interlock them for zigzag patterning. We further show that the corrugated topology of the wing edges is achieved by cell-type specific expression and localization of four kinds of NEPH1/nephrin family proteins through heterophilic adhesion between wing margin cells and hair cells. Homophilic E-cadherin adhesion is also required for attachment of the corrugated dorsoventral edges. Taken together, our results demonstrate that sequential coordination of apoptosis and epithelial architecture with selective adhesion creates the zigzag hair alignment. This may be a common mechanism for geometrically ordered repetitive packing of several types of cells in similarly patterned developmental fields such as the mammalian organ of Corti.Developmental Biology 07/2011; 357(2):336-46. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.07.007 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A prominent feature of glial cells is their ability to migrate along axons to finally wrap and insulate them. In the embryonic Drosophila PNS, most glial cells are born in the CNS and have to migrate to reach their final destinations. To understand how migration of the peripheral glia is regulated, we have conducted a genetic screen looking for mutants that disrupt the normal glial pattern. Here we present an analysis of two of these mutants: Notch and numb. Complete loss of Notch function leads to an increase in the number of glial cells. Embryos hemizygous for the weak Notch(B-8X) allele display an irregular migration phenotype and mutant glial cells show an increased formation of filopodia-like structures. A similar phenotype occurs in embryos carrying the Notch(ts1) allele when shifted to the restrictive temperature during the glial cell migration phase, suggesting that Notch must be activated during glial migration. This is corroborated by the fact that cell-specific reduction of Notch activity in glial cells by directed numb expression also results in similar migration phenotypes. Since the glial migration phenotypes of Notch and numb mutants resemble each other, our data support a model where the precise temporal and quantitative regulation of Numb and Notch activity is not only required during fate decisions but also later during glial differentiation and migration.Developmental Biology 02/2007; 301(1):27-37. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.11.013 · 3.64 Impact Factor