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Effects of particulate carbonaceous matter on the bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene and 2,2 ',5,5 '-tetrachlorobiphenyl to the clam, Macoma balthica

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 10/2004; 38(17):4549-56. DOI: 10.1021/es049893b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the bioavailability via diet of spiked benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) from different carbonaceous (non-carbonate, carbon containing) particle types to clams (Macoma balthica) collected from San Francisco Bay. Our results reveal significant differences in absorption efficiency between compounds and among carbonaceous particle types. Absorption efficiency for PCB-52 was always greater than that for BaP bound to a given particle type. Among particles, absorption efficiency was highest from wood and diatoms and lowest from activated carbon. Large differences in absorption efficiency could not be simply explained by comparatively small differences in the particles' total organic carbon content. BaP and PCB-52 bound to activated carbon exhibited less than 2% absorption efficiency and were up to 60 times less available to clams than the same contaminants associated with other types of carbonaceous matter. These results suggest that variations in the amount and type of sediment particulate carbonaceous matter, whether naturally occurring or added as an amendment, will have a strong influence on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. This has important implications for environmental risk assessment, sediment management, and development of novel remediation techniques.

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    • "Various soil amendments such as paper mill sludge, broiler litter, sawdust (White et al. 2003 ), nutrients, or biosolids have been used to stabilize or to accelerate the degradation of organic contaminants. McLeod et al. ( 2004 ) used activated carbon, coke, peat, anthracite, char, and wood to immobilize benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachloro- biphenyl (PCB-52), with wood having the highest absorption effi ciency and activated carbon the lowest. Besides organic compounds also a series of inorganic materials, such as sesquioxides , clay, oxides, and oxyhydroxides of iron, silica, and allophane, have been applied to catalyze the process of organic contaminant incorporation (Liu et al. 2007 ). "
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    • "Numerous laboratory studies and several field studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the chemical and biological availability of PCBs [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6], PAHs [7] [8] [9] [10] and DDT [11] following addition of activated carbon (AC) to polluted soils or sediments. The amendment of just a few percent by weight AC has been shown to reduce the available concentration of these contaminants, in many cases by more than 90% [12] [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of activated carbon (AC) or biochar (BC) to sediment to reduce the chemical and biologicalavailability of organic contaminants is a promising in-situ remediation technology. But concerns aboutleaving the adsorbed pollutants in place motivate research into sorbent recovery methods. This studyexplores the use of magnetic sorbents. A coal-based magnetic activated carbon (MAC) was identified asthe strongest of four AC and BC derived magnetic sorbents for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)remediation. An 8.1% MAC amendment (w/w, equal to 5% AC content) was found to be as effective as 5%(w/w) pristine AC in reducing aqueous PAHs within three months by 98%. MAC recovery from sedimentafter three months was 77%, and incomplete MAC recovery had both, positive and negative effects. A slightrebound of aqueous PAH concentrations was observed following the MAC recovery, but aqueous PAHconcentrations then dropped again after six months, likely due to the presence of the 23% unrecoveredMAC. On the other hand, the 77% recovery of the 8.1% MAC dose was insufficient to reduce ecotoxic effectsof fine grained AC or MAC amendment on the egestion rate, growth and reproduction of the AC sensitivespecies Lumbriculus variegatus.
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    • "Strong sorbents such as activated carbon are attractive sequestration technologies because PCBs and PAHs adsorb very strongly (Kleineidam et al. 2002; Jonker and Koelmans 2002), desorb very slowly (Ghosh et al. 2001), and are less bioavailable when sorbed (Talley et al. 2002; Mcleod, et al. 2004). Mcleod et al. (2004) reported that less than 5% of a tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) adsorbed to activated carbon could be assimilated into clams digesting particles of activated carbon with these PCBs adsorbed to them, compared to absorption efficiencies of 40% to 90% for other types of sediment carbonaceous material (e.g. peat, wood, and diatoms). "
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