Effects of Particulate Carbonaceous Matter on the Bioavailability of Benzo[ a ]pyrene and 2,2‘,5,5‘-Tetrachlorobiphenyl to the Clam, Macoma balthica

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2004; 38(17):4549-56. DOI: 10.1021/es049893b
Source: PubMed


We investigated the bioavailability via diet of spiked benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) from different carbonaceous (non-carbonate, carbon containing) particle types to clams (Macoma balthica) collected from San Francisco Bay. Our results reveal significant differences in absorption efficiency between compounds and among carbonaceous particle types. Absorption efficiency for PCB-52 was always greater than that for BaP bound to a given particle type. Among particles, absorption efficiency was highest from wood and diatoms and lowest from activated carbon. Large differences in absorption efficiency could not be simply explained by comparatively small differences in the particles' total organic carbon content. BaP and PCB-52 bound to activated carbon exhibited less than 2% absorption efficiency and were up to 60 times less available to clams than the same contaminants associated with other types of carbonaceous matter. These results suggest that variations in the amount and type of sediment particulate carbonaceous matter, whether naturally occurring or added as an amendment, will have a strong influence on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants. This has important implications for environmental risk assessment, sediment management, and development of novel remediation techniques.

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    • "Various soil amendments such as paper mill sludge, broiler litter, sawdust (White et al. 2003 ), nutrients, or biosolids have been used to stabilize or to accelerate the degradation of organic contaminants. McLeod et al. ( 2004 ) used activated carbon, coke, peat, anthracite, char, and wood to immobilize benzo[ a ]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachloro- biphenyl (PCB-52), with wood having the highest absorption effi ciency and activated carbon the lowest. Besides organic compounds also a series of inorganic materials, such as sesquioxides , clay, oxides, and oxyhydroxides of iron, silica, and allophane, have been applied to catalyze the process of organic contaminant incorporation (Liu et al. 2007 ). "
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    ABSTRACT: Biochar is a charcoal-like carbonized organic material, but unlike charcoal, it is added to soils to improve their properties and to store carbon. It has received worldwide attention since the discovery of the fertile terra preta, which is an anthropogenic type of soil enriched in organic matter derived from charred residues. Biochar is characterized by a large surface area, a high porosity, and a high cation exchange capacity, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures. Owing to its properties, its amendment to contaminated soils has been considered for the immobilization of organic and inorganic contaminants. The application of biochar in soil can however also have an undesired effect, e.g., by decreasing the efficacy of pesticides, slowing the degradation of organic contaminants, and introducing contaminants such as PAH, PCB, and dioxins. This indicates a trade-off between the beneficial effects of biochar as a soil amendment and the introduction of new risks. Furthermore, the mechanisms of contaminant retention by biochar need to be investigated in more detail before biochar can be applied on a broad scale to manage soil pollution in a safe and sustainable way.
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    • "Numerous laboratory studies and several field studies have demonstrated significant reductions in the chemical and biological availability of PCBs [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6], PAHs [7] [8] [9] [10] and DDT [11] following addition of activated carbon (AC) to polluted soils or sediments. The amendment of just a few percent by weight AC has been shown to reduce the available concentration of these contaminants, in many cases by more than 90% [12] [13] [14]. "
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    • "Of various materials used for this purpose, the most popular are activated carbon (AC) (Fagervold et al., 2010; Millward et al., 2005; Tomaszewski and Luthy, 2008), and recently also biochar (Cao et al., 2011; Fellet et al., 2011). Luthy et al. (McLeod et al., 2004; Millward et al., 2005; Zimmerman et al., 2004), regarded as the pioneers of the application of AC for sediment remediation, demonstrated that the amendment of harbour sediment contaminated by PAHs and PCBs with 3.4 wt% of AC led to reductions of about 1 order of magnitude in aqueous concentrations, uptake by semipermeable membrane devices, fluxes to overlying water (Zimmerman et al., 2004), and bioaccumulation by polychaetes, amphipods (Millward et al., 2005), and clams (McLeod et al., 2004). A less expensive alternative to AC is biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of plant material, waste, etc. "
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