Role of cytokines and chemokines in prion infections of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Prion infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterised by a reactive gliosis and the subsequent degeneration of neuronal tissue. The activation of glial cells, which precedes neuronal death, is likely to be initially caused by the deposition of misfolded, proteinase K-resistant, isoforms (termed PrP(res)) of the prion protein (PrP) in the brain. Cytokines and chemokines released by PrP(res)-activated glia cells may contribute directly or indirectly to the disease development by enhancement and generalisation of the gliosis and via cytotoxicity for neurons. However, the actual role of prion-induced glia activation and subsequent cytokine/chemokine secretion in disease development is still far from clear. In the present work, we review our present knowledge concerning the functional biology of cytokines and chemokines in prion infections of the CNS.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer () and mule deer () using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage disequilibrium (<1 cM). Markers near the prion protein and the neurofibromin 1 () genes were suggestively associated with CWD status in white-tailed deer ( = 0.006) and mule deer ( = 0.02), respectively. This is the first time an association between the region and CWD has been reported.Evolutionary Applications 02/2013; 6(2):340-52. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Misfolding and aggregation of proteins are the main features of a group of diseases termed Protein Misfolding Disorders (PMDs). PMDs include Alzheimer's disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, among many others. The deposition of protein aggregates is the main responsible for tissue damage and the consequent clinical signs generated in such disorders. In this review, we will focus in the role of protein aggregates in these diseases and in the putative mechanisms by which they exert their toxicity.Revista medica de Chile 04/2013; 141(4):495-505. · 0.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory responses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) remain elusive. We conducted a case-control study, in which 14 patients with sCJD, 14 with noninflammatory neurological disorders, and 14 with autoimmune encephalitis were enrolled. We used the suspension array system to measure the concentrations of 27 cytokines in CSF. The cytokine titers of the three groups were compared, and the correlation between the relevant cytokine titers and clinical parameters was investigated in the patients with sCJD. Levels of the two cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist and IL-17 were significantly elevated in the patients with sCJD compared with those in the patients with noninflammatory neurological disorders: IL-17 levels in sCJD were approximately ten times higher than in the noninflammatory neurological disorders (mean, 35.46 vs. 3.45 pg/ml; P < 0.001) but comparable to that in encephalitis (mean, 32.16 pg/ml). In contrast, levels of classical proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12(p70) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased only in encephalitis. Although not significant, IL-17 titers tended to be higher in the patients with shorter disease duration before CSF sampling (r = -0.452; P = 0.104) and in those with lower CSF total protein concentrations (r = -0.473; P = 0.086). IL-17 is significantly increased in CSF in sCJD, which can be an early event in the pathogenesis of sCJD.Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2013; 10(1):135. · 4.35 Impact Factor