Role of cytokines and chemokines in prion infections of the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Prion infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterised by a reactive gliosis and the subsequent degeneration of neuronal tissue. The activation of glial cells, which precedes neuronal death, is likely to be initially caused by the deposition of misfolded, proteinase K-resistant, isoforms (termed PrP(res)) of the prion protein (PrP) in the brain. Cytokines and chemokines released by PrP(res)-activated glia cells may contribute directly or indirectly to the disease development by enhancement and generalisation of the gliosis and via cytotoxicity for neurons. However, the actual role of prion-induced glia activation and subsequent cytokine/chemokine secretion in disease development is still far from clear. In the present work, we review our present knowledge concerning the functional biology of cytokines and chemokines in prion infections of the CNS.
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ABSTRACT: CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes infiltrate the parenchyma of mouse brains several weeks after intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or oral inoculation with the Chandler strain of mouse scrapie, a pattern not seen with inoculation of prion protein knockout (PrP(-/-)) mice. Associated with this cellular infiltration are expression of MHC class I and II molecules and elevation in levels of the T-cell chemokines, especially macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, and RANTES. T cells were also found in the central nervous system (CNS) in five of six patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. T cells harvested from brains and spleens of scrapie-infected mice were analyzed using a newly identified mouse PrP (mPrP) peptide bearing the canonical binding motifs to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I H-2(b) or H-2(d) molecules, appropriate MHC class I tetramers made to include these peptides, and CD4 and CD8 T cells stimulated with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the whole mPrP. Minimal to modest K(b) tetramer binding of mPrP amino acids (aa) 2 to 9, aa 152 to 160, and aa 232 to 241 was observed, but such tetramer-binding lymphocytes as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes incubated with the full repertoire of mPrP peptides failed to synthesize intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) cytokines and were unable to lyse PrP(-/-) embryo fibroblasts or macrophages coated with (51)Cr-labeled mPrP peptide. These results suggest that the expression of PrP(sc) in the CNS is associated with release of chemokines and, as shown previously, cytokines that attract and retain PrP-activated T cells and, quite likely, bystander activated T cells that have migrated from the periphery into the CNS. However, these CD4 and CD8 T cells are defective in such an effector function(s) as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression or release or lytic activity.Journal of Virology 04/2003; 77(6):3799-808. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows a chronic inflammatory response characterized by activated glial cells and increased expression of cytokines and complement factors surrounding amyloid deposits. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a reduced risk for AD in patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prompting further inquiries about how NSAIDs might influence the development of AD pathology and inflammation in the CNS. We tested the impact of chronic orally administered ibuprofen, the most commonly used NSAID, in a transgenic model of AD displaying widespread microglial activation, age-related amyloid deposits, and dystrophic neurites. These mice were created by overexpressing a variant of the amyloid precursor protein found in familial AD. Transgene-positive (Tg+) and negative (Tg-) mice began receiving chow containing 375 ppm ibuprofen at 10 months of age, when amyloid plaques first appear, and were fed continuously for 6 months. This treatment produced significant reductions in final interleukin-1beta and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, as well as a significant diminution in the ultimate number and total area of beta-amyloid deposits. Reductions in amyloid deposition were supported by ELISA measurements showing significantly decreased SDS-insoluble Abeta. Ibuprofen also decreased the numbers of ubiquitin-labeled dystrophic neurites and the percentage area per plaque of anti-phosphotyrosine-labeled microglia. Thus, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, which has been associated with reduced AD risk in human epidemiological studies, can significantly delay some forms of AD pathology, including amyloid deposition, when administered early in the disease course of a transgenic mouse model of AD.Journal of Neuroscience 09/2000; 20(15):5709-14. · 6.91 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology - J NEUROPATHOL EXP NEUROL. 01/1995; 54(2):276-281.