Tax, a protein encoded by the env-pX gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), interacts with various host cell transcription factors. Tax activates transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HTLV-I through association with cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Here, we present evidence that transducer of regulated cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein 3 (TORC3), a co-activator of CREB, is involved in Tax-induced transcriptional activation from the HTLV-I LTR. By using a luciferase assay system, we show that TORC3 alone can enhance transcription from the HTLV-I LTR, as well as from a cellular cyclic AMP-response element (CRE). Interestingly, we find that co-expression of TORC3 and Tax dramatically increased transcriptional activation at the HTLV-I LTR. We also show by glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments that TORC3 interacts with Tax. Using deletion mutant analysis, we identify the Tax interaction domain of TORC3 as a region spanning from amino acid 1 to 103, which contains a coiled-coil domain. These results provide important clues toward understanding the molecular mechanism of Tax-dependent transcriptional activation of the HTLV-I LTR.
"Additional host factors that directly interact with Tax-1 and act in the Tax-mediated transactivation are the transducer of regulated CREB (TORC) proteins. TORC-1 and TORC-2 are required for Tax activation whereas TORC-3 enhances Tax-dependent transcription (Koga et al., 2004; Siu et al., 2006). Several cellular factors that interact with Tax and participate to HTLV-1 promoter activation have been identified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs) are complex human retroviruses of the Deltaretrovirus genus. Four types have been identified thus far, with HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 much more prevalent than HTLV-3 or HTLV-4. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 possess strictly related genomic structures, but differ significantly in pathogenicity, as HTLV-1 is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, whereas HTLV-2 is not associated with neoplasia. HTLVs code for a protein named Tax that is responsible for enhancing viral expression and drives cell transformation. Much effort has been invested to dissect the impact of Tax on signal transduction pathways and to identify functional differences between the HTLV Tax proteins that may explain the distinct oncogenic potential of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. This review summarizes our current knowledge of Tax-1 and Tax-2 with emphasis on their structure, role in activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-B) pathway, and interactions with host factors.
Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2013; 4:271. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00271 · 3.99 Impact Factor
"The experiment was done in the absence of Tax since CRTC1-S167A is a constitutively active mutant that mimics the effect of Tax. Consistent with previous findings
, CRTC1-WT exhibited modest basal activity on LTR activation (Figure
5E, lane 1 compared to 2–4), whereas LTR activation by CRTC1-S167A was more robust (Figure
5E, lane 13 compared to 14–16). In the presence of dominant active SIK2-T175D or SIK3-T163D, the CRTC1-induced LTR activity was completely blunted (Figure
5E, lanes 5–8 and 9–12 compared to 1–4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Treatment options are limited and prophylactic agents are not available. We have previously demonstrated an essential role for CREB-regulating transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) in HTLV-1 transcription.
In this study we report on the negative regulatory role of LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) in the activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) by the oncoprotein Tax. Activation of LKB1 and SIKs effectively blunted Tax activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas compromising these kinases, but not AMP-dependent protein kinases, augmented Tax function. Activated LKB1 and SIKs associated with Tax and suppressed Tax-induced LTR activation by counteracting CRTCs and CREB. Enforced expression of LKB1 or SIK1 in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clone pX1MT repressed proviral transcription. On the contrary, depletion of LKB1 in pX1MT-transfected cells and in HTLV-1-transformed T cells boosted the expression of Tax. Treatment of HTLV-1 transformed cells with metformin led to LKB1/SIK1 activation, reduction in Tax expression, and inhibition of cell proliferation.
Our findings revealed a new function of LKB1 and SIKs as negative regulators of HTLV-1 transcription. Pharmaceutical activation of LKB1 and SIKs might be considered as a new strategy in anti-HTLV-1 and anti-ATL therapy.
"TORCs enhance the interaction of CREB with the TFII130 component of Transcription factor II D (TFIID) thus enhancing the transcriptional initiation potential of CREB (Koga et al., 2004; Siu et al., 2006). These proteins can also interact with Tax to enhance HTLV-1 transcription (Koga et al., 2004; Siu et al., 2006; Nyborg et al., 2010). The work of Jiang and coworkers has proposed an interesting potential role for TORC2 in HTLV-1 infections. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been identified as the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The virus infects between 15 and 20 million people worldwide of which approximately 2-5% develop ATL. The past 35 years of research have yielded significant insight into the pathogenesis of HTLV-1, including the molecular characterization of Tax, the viral transactivator, and oncoprotein. In spite of these efforts, the mechanisms of oncogenesis of this pleiotropic protein remain to be fully elucidated. In this review, we illustrate the multiple oncogenic roles of Tax by summarizing a recent body of literature that refines our understanding of cellular transformation. A focused range of topics are discussed in this review including Tax-mediated regulation of the viral promoter and other cellular pathways, particularly the connection of the NF-κB pathway to both post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Tax and subcellular localization. Specifically, recent research on polyubiquitination of Tax as it relates to the activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is highlighted. Regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage responses due to Tax are also discussed, including Tax interaction with minichromosome maintenance proteins and the role of Tax in chromatin remodeling. The recent identification of HTLV-3 has amplified the importance of the characterization of emerging viral pathogens. The challenge of the molecular determination of pathogenicity and malignant disease of this virus lies in the comparison of the viral transactivators of HTLV-1, -2, and -3 in terms of transformation and immortalization. Consequently, differences between the three proteins are currently being studied to determine what factors are required for the differences in tumorogenesis.
Frontiers in Microbiology 11/2012; 3:406. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00406 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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