Enhanced activation of tax-dependent transcription of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeat by TORC3
ABSTRACT Tax, a protein encoded by the env-pX gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), interacts with various host cell transcription factors. Tax activates transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HTLV-I through association with cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Here, we present evidence that transducer of regulated cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein 3 (TORC3), a co-activator of CREB, is involved in Tax-induced transcriptional activation from the HTLV-I LTR. By using a luciferase assay system, we show that TORC3 alone can enhance transcription from the HTLV-I LTR, as well as from a cellular cyclic AMP-response element (CRE). Interestingly, we find that co-expression of TORC3 and Tax dramatically increased transcriptional activation at the HTLV-I LTR. We also show by glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments that TORC3 interacts with Tax. Using deletion mutant analysis, we identify the Tax interaction domain of TORC3 as a region spanning from amino acid 1 to 103, which contains a coiled-coil domain. These results provide important clues toward understanding the molecular mechanism of Tax-dependent transcriptional activation of the HTLV-I LTR.
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ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs) are complex human retroviruses of the Deltaretrovirus genus. Four types have been identified thus far, with HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 much more prevalent than HTLV-3 or HTLV-4. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 possess strictly related genomic structures, but differ significantly in pathogenicity, as HTLV-1 is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, whereas HTLV-2 is not associated with neoplasia. HTLVs code for a protein named Tax that is responsible for enhancing viral expression and drives cell transformation. Much effort has been invested to dissect the impact of Tax on signal transduction pathways and to identify functional differences between the HTLV Tax proteins that may explain the distinct oncogenic potential of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. This review summarizes our current knowledge of Tax-1 and Tax-2 with emphasis on their structure, role in activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-B) pathway, and interactions with host factors.Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2013; 4:271. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00271 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcription of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) template is essential for its replication. Suppressing the level and transcriptional activity of cccDNA might have anti-HBV effect. Although cellular transcription factors, such as CREB, which mediate HBV transcription, have been well described, transcriptional coactivators that facilitate this process are incompletely understood. In this study we showed that CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is required for HBV transcription and replication. The steady-state levels of CRTC1 protein were elevated in HBV-positive hepatoma cells and liver tissues. Ectopic expression of CRTC1 or its homolog CRTC2 or CRTC3 in hepatoma cells stimulated the activity of the preS2/S promoter of HBV, whereas overexpression of a dominant inactive form of CRTC1 inhibited HBV transcription. CRTC1 interacts with CREB and they are mutually required for the recruitment to the preS2/S promoter on cccDNA and for the activation of HBV transcription. Accumulation of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and cccDNA was observed when CRTC1 or its homologs were overexpressed, whereas the levels of pgRNA, cccDNA and secreted HBsAg were diminished when CRTC1 was compromised. In addition, HBV transactivator protein HBx stabilized CRTC1 and promoted its activity on HBV transcription. Our work reveals an essential role of CRTC1 coactivator in facilitating and supporting HBV transcription and replication.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku925 · 8.81 Impact Factor