Bone mineral density in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 6D05, MSC 1590, Bethesda, MD 20892-1590, USA.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 11.04). 01/2005; 171(1):61-7. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200406-701OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Estrogen deficiency and pulmonary diseases are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) loss. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disorder affecting women that is characterized by cystic lung lesions, is frequently treated with antiestrogen therapy, i.e., progesterone and/or oophorectomy. Therefore, we evaluated BMD yearly in 211 LAM patients to determine the prevalence of BMD abnormalities, whether antiestrogen therapy decreased BMD, and if treatment with bisphosphonates prevented bone loss. Abnormal BMD was found in 70% of the patients and correlated with severity of lung disease and age. Greater severity of lung disease, menopause, and oophorectomy were associated with greater decline in BMD. After adjusting for differences in initial lung function and BMD, we found similar rates of BMD decline in progesterone-treated (n = 122) and untreated patients (n = 89). After similar adjustments, we found that bisphosphonate-treated patients (n = 98) had lower rates of decline in lumbar spine BMD (-0.004 +/- 0.003 vs. -0.015 +/- 0.003 gm/cm(2), p = 0.036) and T-scores (-0.050 +/- 0.041 vs. -0.191 +/- 0.041, p < 0.001) than untreated patients (n = 113). We conclude that abnormal BMD was frequent in LAM. Progesterone therapy was not associated with changes in BMD; bisphosphonate therapy was associated with lower rates of bone loss. We recommend systematic evaluation of BMD and early treatment with bisphosphonates for patients with LAM.

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    ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterised by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) leading to progressive cystic destruction of the lung, lymphatic abnormalities and abdominal tumours. It affects predominantly females and can occur sporadically or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. This review describes the recent progress in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and LAM cell biology. It also summarises current therapeutic approaches and the most promising areas of research for future therapeutic strategies.
    European Respiratory Review 03/2011; 20(119):34-44.
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    European Respiratory Review 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to its effects on bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor family of receptors, promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and may act as a survival factor for tumor cells. We hypothesized that these cellular mechanisms of OPG may be involved in the growth and proliferation of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) cells, abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor-suppressor genes (TSC1/TSC2) that cause LAM, a multisystem disease characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic infiltration, and abdominal tumors. Herein, we show that OPG stimulated proliferation of cells cultured from explanted LAM lungs, and selectively induced migration of LAM cells identified by the loss of heterozygosity for TSC2. Consistent with these observations, cells with TSC2 loss of heterozygosity expressed the OPG receptors, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules showed reactivities to antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, syndecan-1, and syndecan-2. LAM lung nodules also produced OPG, as shown by expression of OPG mRNA and colocalization of reactivities to anti-OPG and anti-gp100 (HMB45) antibodies in LAM lung nodules. Serum OPG was significantly higher in LAM patients than in normal volunteers. Based on these data, it appears that OPG may have tumor-promoting roles in the pathogenesis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, perhaps acting as both autocrine and paracrine factors.
    American Journal Of Pathology 07/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor


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