Multimicronutrient interventions but not vitamin A or iron interventions alone improve child growth: Results of 3 meta-analyses
ABSTRACT Meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials were conducted to assess the effects of vitamin A, iron, and multimicronutrient interventions on the growth of children < 18 y old. A PubMed database search and other methods identified 14 vitamin A, 21 iron, and 5 multimicronutrient intervention studies that met the design criteria. Weighted mean effect sizes and CI were calculated using a random effects model for changes in height and weight. Tests for homogeneity and stratified analyses by predefined characteristics were conducted. Vitamin A interventions had no significant effect on growth; effect sizes were 0.08 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.36) for height and -0.01 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.22) for weight. Iron interventions also had no significant effect on child growth. Overall effect sizes were 0.09 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.24) for height and 0.13 (95% CI: -0.05, 0.30) for weight. The results were similar across categories of age, duration of intervention, mode and dosage of intervention, and baseline anthropometric status. Iron interventions did result in a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations with an effect size of 1.49 (95% CI: 0.46, 2.51). Multimicronutrient interventions had a positive effect on child growth; the effect sizes were 0.28 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.41) for height and 0.28 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.63) for weight. Interventions limited to only vitamin A or iron did not improve child growth. Multimicronutrient interventions, on the other hand, improved linear and possibly ponderal growth in children.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin A supplements may interact with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine causing increased female mortality. In a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS), we examined growth during the first year of life in 808 children, pursuing the hypothesis that a negative interaction between VAS and DTP in girls would be reflected in growth. Length and weight were measured at 6 weekly visits and WHO-growth-reference z-scores derived. Neonatal VAS had no effect on anthropometric measures at 12 months, but may interact sex differentially with routine vaccines. While BCG was the most recent vaccine, neonatal VAS benefitted growth (difference in weight-for-length z-score (dWFL: 0.31(95% CI: 0.03–0.59)). While DTP was the most recent vaccine, VAS tended to affect growth adversely in girls (dWFL = −0.21 (−0.48–0.06)). After measles vaccine (MV) there was no overall effect of neonatal VAS. The VAS effect differed significantly between the BCG and DTP windows (P = 0.03), and the difference was borderline significant between the DTP and MV windows for girls (P = 0.09).Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2011; 2011:570170. DOI:10.1155/2011/570170
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of low-dose weekly supplementation with iron, zinc or both on growth of infants from 6 to 12 months of age. SUBJECTS/METHods: A total of 645 breastfed infants age 6 months who were not severely anemic (Hb> or = 90 g l(-1)) or severely malnourished (weight-for-age > or = 60% median) were randomized to receive 20 mg iron and 1 mg riboflavin; 20 mg zinc and 1 mg riboflavin; 20 mg iron, 20 mg zinc and 1 mg riboflavin; or riboflavin alone (control) weekly for 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar among the four supplementation groups. Weight, length and mid-upper arm circumference were assessed at baseline, 8, 10 and 12 months of age. There was no interaction of iron and zinc when given in a combined supplement on either weight or length (P>0.05). There were no effects of either iron or zinc on the rate of length or weight gain for all infants or when stratified by baseline Hb concentration. Weekly supplementation of 20 mg Fe, 20 mg Zn, or both does not benefit growth among infants 6-12 months of age in rural Bangladesh, a region with high rates of anemia and zinc deficiency.European journal of clinical nutrition 09/2007; 63(1):87-92. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602905 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of a school-based weekly iron supplementation delivery system (WISDS) on the prevalence of anemia among anemic schoolchildren. Two hundred and forty-two Filipino schoolchildren aged 6-12 years with hemoglobin (Hb) concentration <12 g/dl and enrolled for school year 2003-2004. UNICEF iron-folate tablets containing 60 mg elemental iron and 0.40 mg folic acid were given weekly through directly observed supplementation by the teachers for 27 weeks. Compliance to iron supplementation was monitored by the teachers and was recorded using a monitoring form and a supplementation calendar. Hb concentration, weight and height were determined at baseline and at post-intervention. At post-intervention, the participants' mean Hb concentration increased by 0.4 g/dl (95% confidence interval =0.3, 0.5 g/dl; P<0.0001), anemia prevalence was reduced by 53.7, and 84.3% of the participants had 100% compliance to supplementation. The school-based WISDS reduced anemia prevalence among anemic schoolchildren and resulted in high compliance to and coverage of iron supplementation.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2007; 62(8):991-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602809 · 2.95 Impact Factor