Work, leisure-time physical activity, and risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA. <>
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 11/2004; 160(8):758-65. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwh277
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Few studies of preeclampsia have assessed physical activity level, yet recent evidence suggests that the pathologic mechanisms in preeclampsia are similar to those in cardiovascular disease, for which physical activity is shown to be protective. The authors assessed the independent and combined effects of work and regular leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during early pregnancy on risk of de novo preeclampsia (n = 44) and gestational hypertension (n = 172) among women recruited from 13 obstetric practices in the New Haven, Connecticut, area between 1988 and 1991. Control subjects were normotensive throughout pregnancy (n = 2,422). Information on time at work spent sitting, standing, and walking and on LTPA before and during pregnancy was collected via face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analyses suggested that women who engaged in any regular LTPA regardless of caloric expenditure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 1.22), were unemployed (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.21, 2.00), or had nonsedentary jobs (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.37, 1.36) were at decreased risk of preeclampsia. Analyses of gestational hypertension showed no indication of a protective effect of workplace activity, LTPA, or unemployment. Consistent with other studies, these data suggest that regular physical activity during pregnancy may reduce preeclampsia risk.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this report is to present a concise evaluation of published literature on nutrition and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. The final sections include responses to specific questions raised by the Risk Identification and Selection Collaborative (RISC).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perinatal depression affects 10–20% of women and has wide‐ranging consequences for the mothers and their families. Although antidepressant medications are widely used to treat depression, many perinatal women express interest in alternative treatment options. Physical activity interventions may be particularly useful in perinatal populations given high rates of physical inactivity and the potential benefits associated with physical activity. We review research addressing the relationship between physical activity and mood across the perinatal period, with an emphasis on both naturalistic and intervention research. Evidence indicates that physical activity interventions may be an effective intervention for perinatal depression, but rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy of these interventions. We conclude with recommendations for future research in this area.
    Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 03/2012; 19(1). · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions.
    Reproductive Health 09/2014; 11 Suppl 3:S3. · 1.62 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014