Article

Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces neuroendocrine differentiation in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line through PKA, ERK, and PI3K.

Unidad de Neuroendocrinología Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
The Prostate (Impact Factor: 3.57). 05/2005; 63(1):44-55. DOI: 10.1002/pros.20173
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer has been correlated with unfavorable clinical outcome. The mechanisms by which prostate cancer acquires NE properties are poorly understood, but several signaling pathways have been proposed. We have previously observed that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates cAMP production mainly through VPAC(1) receptor, inducing NE differentiation in LNCaP cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in this process.
Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were performed.
LNCaP cells produce VIP, as demonstrated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. VIP induced NE differentiation of LNCaP cells at a time as short as 1 hr of treatment, and the same occurred with the expression and secretion of neuronal-specific enolase (NSE, a NE differentiation marker). These effects were faster than those exerted by serum-deprivation. VIP induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and NE differentiation by PKA-dependent and independent pathways, since the PKA inhibitor H89 partially blocked VIP-induced NE differentiation and did not affect ERK1/2 phosphorylation. mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) appear to be also involved since the inhibitors PD98059 and wortmannin abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation and decreased NE differentiation induced by VIP. Moreover, VIP activated Ras suggesting the involvement of a Ras-dependent pathway.
VIP behaves as autocrine/paracrine factor in LNCaP cells by inducing NE differentiation through PKA, ERK1/2, and PI3K.

0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the human epidermal growth factor family of tyrosine kinase receptors (HER) are potent promoters of cell proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and differentiation in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the cross-talk between both classes of receptors through the regulation of HER2 transactivation and expression by VIP. Three growth-hormone-releasing hormone analogs endowed with antagonistic activity for VIP receptors (JV-1-51, -52, and -53) abrogated the autocrine/paracrine stimuli of VIP on androgen-independent PC3 cells in the absence or the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Semiquantitative and real-time quantitative RT-PCR together with Western blotting showed increased expression levels of both mRNA and proteins for HER2 and HER3 in PC3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells as compared to non-neoplastic RWPE-1 cells. VIP (100 nM) stimulated the expression levels of both HER2 and HER3 in PC3 cells in a time-dependent manner. Whereas these effects were relatively slow, VIP rapidly (0.5 min) increased HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation. This pattern of HER transactivation was blocked by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, as well as by the specific VIP antagonist JV-1-53, indicating the involvement of VIP receptors and PKA activity in phosphorylated HER2 formation. These findings support the merit of further studies on the potential usefulness of VIP receptor antagonists and both HER2 antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors for prostate cancer therapy.
    International Journal of Oncology 12/2007; 31(5):1223-30. DOI:10.3892/ijo.31.5.1223 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a powerful activator of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Transactivation and nuclear localisation of NF-κB is an index of recurrence in prostate cancer. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exerts similar effects in prostate cancer models involving increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which are related to NF-κB transactivation. Here we studied differential mechanisms of VIP-induced NF-κB transactivation in non-tumour RWPE-1 and tumour LNCaP and PC3 human prostate epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence studies showed that VIP increases translocation of the p50 subunit of NF-κB1 to the nucleus, an effect that was inhibited by curcumin. The signalling transduction pathways involved are different depending on cell transformation degree. In control cells (RWPE1), the effect is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) activation and does not implicate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathways whereas the opposite is true in tumour LNCaP and PC3 cells. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) pathway is involved in transformed cells but not in control cells. Curcumin blocks the activating effect of VIP on COX-2 promoter/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and VEGF expression and secretion. The study incorporates direct observation on COX-2 promoter and suggests that VIP effect on VEGF may be indirectly mediated by PGE2 after being synthesised by COX-2, thus amplifying the initial signal. We show that the signalling involved in VIP effects on VEGF is cAMP/PKA in non-tumour cells and cAMP/EPAC/ERK/PI3K in tumour cells which coincides with pathways mediating p50 nuclear translocation. Thus, VIP appears to use different pathways for NF-κB1 (p50) transactivation in prostate epithelial cells depending on whether they are transformed or not. Transformed cells depend on pro-survival and pro-proliferative signalling pathways involving ERK, PI3-K and cAMP/EPAC which supports the potential therapeutic value of these targets in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.11.005 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression of human (h) calcitonin (CT) and its receptor (CTR) is localized to basal epithelium in benign prostates but is distributed in whole epithelium of malignant prostates. Moreover, the abundance of hCT and CTR mRNA in primary prostate tumors positively correlates with the tumor grade. We tested the hypothesis that the modulation of endogenous hCT expression of prostate cancer (PC) cell lines alters their oncogenicity. The effect of modulation of hCT expression on oncogenic characteristics was examined in LNCaP and PC-3M cell lines. The endogenous hCT expression was modulated using either constitutively active expression vector containing hCT cDNA or anti-hCT hammerhead ribozymes. The changes in the oncogenicity of cell sublines was assessed with cell proliferation assays, invasion assays, colony formation assays, and in vivo growth in athymic nude mice. Up-regulation of hCT in PC-3M cells and or enforced hCT expression in LNCaP cells dramatically enhanced their oncogenic characteristics. In contrast, the down-regulation of hCT in PC-3M cells led to a dramatic decline in their oncogenicity. These results, when combined with our other results, that the expression of hCT in primary PCs increase with tumor grade, suggest an important role for hCT in the progression of PC to a metastatic phenotype.
    Molecular Endocrinology 09/2006; 20(8):1894-911. DOI:10.1210/me.2005-0284 · 4.20 Impact Factor