Selective maturation of dendritic cells by Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-secreted proteins drives Th2 immune responses.

Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
European Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.52). 12/2004; 34(11):3047-59. DOI: 10.1002/eji.200425167
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Helminth infections at mucosal and tissue sites strongly polarize towards Th2 immune responses, following pathways which have yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether dendritic cells (DC) exposed to gastrointestinal nematodes induce Th2 differentiation and, if so, whether this outcome reflects the absence of DC activation (the default hypothesis). We studied secreted proteins from the parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which induce Th2 development in vivo without live infection. Murine bone marrow-derived DC pulsed with N. brasiliensis excretory/secretory antigen (NES) can, on transfer to naive recipients, prime mice for Th2 responsiveness. Heat inactivation of NES abolishes both its ability to drive Th2 responses in vivo and its capacity to stimulate DC for Th2 induction. NES, but not heat-inactivated NES, up-regulates DC maturation markers associated with Th2 promotion (CD86 and OX40L), with little change to CD80 and MHC class II. Moreover, DC exposed to NES readily produce IL-6 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12p70. LPS induced high IL-12p70 levels, except in DC that had been pre-incubated with NES. These data contradict the default hypothesis, demonstrating that a helminth product (NES) actively matures DC, selectively up-regulating CD86 and OX40L together with IL-6 production, while blocking IL-12p70 responsiveness in a manner consistent with Th2 generation in vivo.

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    ABSTRACT: Nearly one quarter of the world's population is infected with helminth parasites. A common feature of helminth infections is the manifestation of a type 2 immune response, characterized by T helper 2 (Th2) cells that mediate anti-helminth immunity. In addition, recent literature describes a close association between type 2 immune responses and wound repair, suggesting that a Th2 response may concurrently mediate repair of parasite-induced damage. The molecular mechanisms that govern Th2 responses are poorly understood, although it is clear that dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells in the immune system, play a central role. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which DCs polarize Th2 cells, examining both helminth antigens and helminth-mediated tissue damage as Th2-inducing triggers. Finally, we discuss the implication of these findings in the context of metabolic disorders, as recent literature indicates that various aspects of the Th2-associated inflammatory response contribute to metabolic homeostasis.
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    ABSTRACT: Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Helminths are credited with being the major selective force driving the evolution of the so-called "type 2" immune responses in vertebrate animals, with their size and infection strategies presenting unique challenges to the immune system. Originally, type 2 immune responses were defined by the presence and activities of the CD4(+) T-helper 2 subset producing the canonical cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. This picture is now being challenged by the discovery of a more complex pattern of CD4(+) T-helper cell subsets that appear during infection, including Tregs, Th17, Tfh, and more recently, Th22, Th9, and ThGM. In addition, a clearer view of the mechanisms by which helminths and their products selectively prime the CD4(+) T-cell subsets is emerging. In this review, we have focused on recent data concerning the selective priming, differentiation, and functional role of CD4(+) T-helper cell subsets in the context of helminth infection. We argue for a re-evaluation of the original Th2 paradigm and discuss how the observed plasticity of the T-helper subsets may enable the parasitized host to achieve an appropriate compromise between elimination, tissue repair, containment, and pathology.
    Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:487.

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