Laser cryptolysis for the treatment of halitosis

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.72). 11/2004; 131(4):372-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the tonsils as a source of halitosis and to assess the efficacy of laser CO(2) cryptolysis for the treatment of oral bad breath caused by chronic fetid tonsillitis.
Fifty-three patients with halitosis originating from chronic fetid tonsillitis, who completed laser cryptolysis were enrolled in the study. The origin of halitosis was demonstrated by Finkelstein's tonsil smelling test, which included massaging the tonsils and smelling the squeezed discharge. All patients were treated by laser cryptolysis, an office procedure done under topical anesthesia. Subjective and objective postoperative assessment was based on self-and-family report and clinical assessment. Patients were reexamined 4 to 6 weeks post-treatment, and when the need for further laser treatment was determined.
Complete elimination of halitosis required one session in 28 patients (52.8%), 2 sessions in 18 patients (34%), and 3 sessions in 5 patients (9.4%). Follow-up period ranged from 3 to 36 months (mean, 20.8 +/- 8.5 months). No adverse effects or complications were encountered.
After excluding dental or periodontal, sinonasal, oral, pulmonary, or gastroenterological diseases as the origin of halitosis, chronic fetid tonsillitis remains a common cause of halitosis. Patients suffering from halitosis should be treated relying on their examination including Finkelstein's tonsil smelling test. Laser CO(2) cryptolysis is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated procedure for the treatment of halitosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Halitosis secondary to pathology of the palatine tonsils is considered airway (type 2) halitosis in the etiologic classification. Reports differ as to the proportion of objective halitosis complaints that have tonsillar etiology, with some giving this figure as 3%. Due to their immunologic role, even healthy tonsils usually possess some subclinical inflammation. The tonsil crypt system is also the most ideal environment for anaerobic bacterial activity in the upper respiratory tract. Tonsillar halitosis is thought to occur mainly because of chronic caseous tonsillitis and tonsillolithiasis (tonsil stones). Tonsillectomy and various cryptolysis techniques are reported to improve halitosis in such cases. In this article, diagnostic methods and evidence for interventions are reviewed.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 08/2014; 151(4). DOI:10.1177/0194599814544881 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others.A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (perio-dic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and fungi belong to the healthy flora and do no harm. Ten percent of the healthy children bear even strepptococcus pyogenes all the time in the tonsils with no clinical signs. In these children decolonization is not necessary. Therefore, microbiological screening tests in children without symptoms are senseless and do not justify an antibiotic treatment (which is sometimes postulated by the kindergartens).The acute tonsillitis should be treated with steroids (e.g. dexamethasone), NSAIDs (e.g. ibuprofene) and betalactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillin or cefuroxime). With respect to the symptom reduction and primary healing the short-term late-generation antibiotic therapy (azithromycin, clarithromycin or cephalosporine for 3 to 5 days) is comparable to the long-term penicilline therapy. There is no difference in the course of healing, recurrence or microbiological resistence between the short-term penicilline therapy to the standard 10 days therapy, as well. On the other hand, only the 10 days antibiotic therapy has proofen to be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritic desaeses. The incidence of rheumatic heart desease is currently 0.5 per 100.000 children in school age. The main morbidity after tonsillectomy is pain and the late hemorrhage. Posttonsillectomy bleeding can occur till the whole wound is completly healed, which is normally after 3 weeks. Life-threatening hemorrhages occur often after smaller bleedings, which can spontaneously cease. That is why every hemorrhage, even the smallest, has to be treated properly and in ward. Patients and parents have to be informed about the correct behavior in case of hemorrhage with a written consent before the surgery.The handout should contain important adresses, phone numbers and contact persons. Almost all cases of fatal outcome after tonsillectomy were due to false management of hemorrhage. Especially in small children hemorrhage can be life-threatening because of the lower blood volume and the danger of aspiration with asphyxia. A massive hemorrhage is an extreme challenge for every paramedic or emergency doctor because of the difficult airway management. Intubation is only possible with appropriate unflexible suction tubes. All different surgical techniques have the risk of hemorrhage and even the best surgeon will experience a postoperative hemorrhage. The lowest risk of hemorrhage is after cold dissection with ligature or suturing. All "hot" techniques with laser, radiofrequency, coblation, mono- or bipolar forceps have a higher risk of late hemorrhage.Children with a heredetary coagulopathy have a higher risk of hemorrhage. It is possible, that these children were not identified before surgery. Therefore it is recommended by the Society of paediatrics, anaesthesia and ENT, that a standardised ques-tionnaire should be answered by the parents before tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This 17-points-checklist questionnaire is more sensitive and easier to perform than a screening with blood tests (e.g. INR and PTT). Unfortunately, a lot of surgeons still screen the children preoperatively by coagulative blood tests, although these test are inappropiate and incapable of detecting the von Willebrand desease, which is the most often coagulopathy in Europe.The preoperative information about the surgery should be done with the child and the parents in a calm and objective atmosphere with a written consent. A copy of the consent with the signature of the surgeon and both custodial parents has to be handed out to the parents.
    Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie 03/2014; 93 Suppl 1:S84-S102. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1363210 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF) cryptolysis for caseum-induced halitosis. Clinical retrospective study. Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Konya Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. Thirty-four patients with caseum-induced halitosis were included. Eight were male (23.5%) and 26 were female (76.5%). Their mean age was 28.29±9.3 (range: 17-48) years. The mean duration of complaint of halitosis before RF cryptolysis was 53.41±42.6months (range: 6-182months). The Finkelstein test, organoleptic measurements, and visual analog scale (VAS) were performed before and 12months after RF cryptolysis. Before RF cryptolysis, all patients had a positive Finkelstein's test result, organoleptic measurements revealed that three (8.82%) had serious halitosis, 24 (70.58%) had average halitosis, and seven (20.58%) had mild halitosis, and the mean VAS score was 6.82±1.45. The follow-up period after RF cryptolysis was 12months. After the single RF cryptolysis session, 26 patients (76.47%) were negative for Finkelstein's test, organoleptic assessments revealed that 26 (76.47%), six (17.64%), and two (5.88%) showed complete, partial, and no recovery, respectively, (p<0.001), and the mean VAS score was significantly better at 1.88±2.5 (p<0.001). Thirty-two patients (94.1%) exhibited a decrease in VAS score. RF cryptolysis is a cost-effective, safe, and easily applicable modality for the treatment of halitosis due to caseums in the crypts of the palatine tonsils.
    American journal of otolaryngology 12/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.11.010 · 1.08 Impact Factor


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