Nucleic acid-based technologies: application amplified.

TATAA Biocenter AB, Gothenburg, Sweden. .
Pharmacogenomics (Impact Factor: 3.43). 11/2004; 5(7):767-73. DOI: 10.1517/14622416.5.7.767
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    ABSTRACT: The employment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for virus detection and quantification offers the advantages of high sensitivity and reproducibility, combined with an extremely broad dynamic range. A number of qualitative and quantitative PCR virus assays have been described, but commercial PCR kits are available for quantitative analysis of a limited number of clinically important viruses only. In addition to permitting the assess-ment of viral load at a given time point, quantitative PCR tests offer the possibility of deter-mining the dynamics of virus proliferation, monitoring of the response to treatment and, in viruses displaying persistence in defined cell types, distinction between latent and active infec-tion. Moreover, from a technical point of view, the employment of sequential quantitative PCR assays in virus monitoring helps identifying false positive results caused by inadvertent contamination of samples with traces of viral nucleic acids or PCR products. In this review, we provide a survey of the current state-of-the-art in the application of the real-time PCR tech-nology to virus analysis. Advantages and limitations of the RQ-PCR methodology, and qual-ity control issues related to standardization and validation of diagnostic assays are discussed.
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine 04/2006; 27:254-298. DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2005.12.001 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific, medical, and diagnostic communities have been presented the most powerful tool for quantitative nucleic acids analysis: real-time PCR [Bustin, S.A., 2004. A-Z of Quantitative PCR. IUL Press, San Diego, CA]. This new technique is a refinement of the original Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) developed by Kary Mullis and coworkers in the mid 80:ies [Saiki, R.K., et al., 1985. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia, Science 230, 1350], for which Kary Mullis was awarded the 1993 year's Nobel prize in Chemistry. By PCR essentially any nucleic acid sequence present in a complex sample can be amplified in a cyclic process to generate a large number of identical copies that can readily be analyzed. This made it possible, for example, to manipulate DNA for cloning purposes, genetic engineering, and sequencing. But as an analytical technique the original PCR method had some serious limitations. By first amplifying the DNA sequence and then analyzing the product, quantification was exceedingly difficult since the PCR gave rise to essentially the same amount of product independently of the initial amount of DNA template molecules that were present. This limitation was resolved in 1992 by the development of real-time PCR by Higuchi et al. [Higuchi, R., Dollinger, G., Walsh, P.S., Griffith, R., 1992. Simultaneous amplification and detection of specific DNA-sequences. Bio-Technology 10(4), 413-417]. In real-time PCR the amount of product formed is monitored during the course of the reaction by monitoring the fluorescence of dyes or probes introduced into the reaction that is proportional to the amount of product formed, and the number of amplification cycles required to obtain a particular amount of DNA molecules is registered. Assuming a certain amplification efficiency, which typically is close to a doubling of the number of molecules per amplification cycle, it is possible to calculate the number of DNA molecules of the amplified sequence that were initially present in the sample. With the highly efficient detection chemistries, sensitive instrumentation, and optimized assays that are available today the number of DNA molecules of a particular sequence in a complex sample can be determined with unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity sufficient to detect a single molecule. Typical uses of real-time PCR include pathogen detection, gene expression analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, analysis of chromosome aberrations, and most recently also protein detection by real-time immuno PCR.
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine 04/2006; 27(2-3):95-125. DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2005.12.007 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in the biologic sciences and technology are providing molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Lymphoma is a group of cancers with diverse clinical courses. Gene profiling opens new possibilities to classify the disease into subtypes and guide a differentiated treatment. Real-time PCR is characterized by high sensitivity, excellent precision and large dynamic range, and has become the method of choice for quantitative gene expression measurements. For accurate gene expression profiling by real-time PCR, several parameters must be considered and carefully validated. These include the use of reference genes and compensation for PCR inhibition in data normalization. Quantification by real-time PCR may be performed as either absolute measurements using an external standard, or as relative measurements, comparing the expression of a reporter gene with that of a presumed constantly expressed reference gene. Sometimes it is possible to compare expression of reporter genes only, which improves the accuracy of prediction. The amount of biologic material required for real-time PCR analysis is much lower than that required for analysis by traditional methods due to the very high sensitivity of PCR. Fine-needle aspirates and even single cells contain enough material for accurate real-time PCR analysis.
    Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 04/2005; 5(2):221-30. DOI:10.1586/14737159.5.2.221 · 4.27 Impact Factor