ABSTRACT Sports-related injuries are among the more common causes of injury in adolescents that can result in concussion and its sequelae, postconcussion syndrome and second-impact syndrome (SIS). Students who experience multiple brain injuries within a short period of time (hours, days, or weeks) may suffer catastrophic or fatal reactions related to SIS. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to the dangers of SIS, and current return-to-play guidelines may be too lenient to protect a student from SIS. Any student with signs of a concussion should receive medical evaluation and not be allowed to return to play in the current game or practice. The role of the school nurse includes being knowledgeable about management of head injuries and return-to-play guidelines, providing follow-up for athletes who have concussions, and providing education on prevention and management of head injuries.
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ABSTRACT: The Miami University Concussion Management Program was established in 1999 in order to assess, manage, and monitor athletes who sustain concussions and experience neurobehavioral and neurocognitive symptoms secondary to their injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the established procedures of one of the oldest university based interdisciplinary concussion management programs that is coordinated by speech-language pathologists (SLP).American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 08/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurotrauma or injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are a serious public health problem worldwide. Approximately 75% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are concussions or other mild TBI (mTBI) forms. Evaluation of concussion injury today is limited to an assessment of behavioral symptoms, often with delay and subject to motivation. Hence, there is an urgent need for an accurate chemical measure in biofluids to serve as a diagnostic tool for invisible brain wounds, to monitor severe patient trajectories, and to predict survival chances. Although a number of neurotrauma marker candidates have been reported, the broad spectrum of TBI limits the significance of small cohort studies. Specificity and sensitivity issues compound the development of a conclusive diagnostic assay, especially for concussion patients. Thus, the neurotrauma field currently has no diagnostic biofluid test in clinical use.Content: We discuss the challenges of discovering new and validating identified neurotrauma marker candidates using proteomics-based strategies, including targeting, selection strategies and the application of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and their potential impact to the neurotrauma field. Many studies use TBI marker candidates based on literature reports, yet progress in genomics and proteomics have started to provide neurotrauma protein profiles. Choosing meaningful marker candidates from such 'long lists' is still pending, as only few can be taken through the process of preclinical verification and large scale translational validation. Quantitative mass spectrometry targeting specific molecules rather than random sampling of the whole proteome, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), offers an efficient and effective means to multiplex the measurement of several candidates in patient samples, thereby omitting the need for antibodies prior to clinical assay design. Sample preparation challenges specific to TBI are addressed. A tailored selection strategy combined with a multiplex screening approach is helping to arrive at diagnostically suitable candidates for clinical assay development. A surrogate marker test will be instrumental for critical decisions of TBI patient care and protection of concussion victims from repeated exposures that could result in lasting neurological deficits.Clinical Proteomics 03/2014; 11(1):11.
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ABSTRACT: Context : Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries. Limited evidence exists about factors that may influence concussion-reporting behaviors. Objective : To examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on concussion-reporting behaviors in a sample of high school athletes. Design : Cross-sectional study. Setting : Participants completed a validated survey instrument via mail. Patients or Other Participants : A total of 167 high school athletes (97 males, 55 females, 5 sex not indicated; age = 15.7 ± 1.4 years) participating in football, soccer, lacrosse, or cheerleading. Intervention(s) : Athlete knowledge and attitude scores served as separate predictor variables. Main Outcome Measure(s) : We examined the proportion of athletes who reported continuing to participate in games and practices while symptomatic from possible concussion and the self-reported proportion of recalled concussion and bell-ringer events disclosed after possible concussive injury. Results : Only 40% of concussion events and 13% of bell-ringer recalled events in the sample were disclosed after possible concussive injury. Increased athlete knowledge of concussion topics (increase of 1 standard deviation = 2.8 points) was associated with increased reporting prevalence of concussion and bell-ringer events occurring in practice (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 3.21) and the reporting prevalence of bell-ringer-only events overall (PR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.38, 2.54). Athlete attitude scores (increase of 1 standard deviation = 11.5 points) were associated with decreases in the proportion of athletes stating they participated in games (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.82) and practices (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77) while symptomatic from concussions. Conclusions : Most recalled concussion events in our study were not reported to a supervising adult. Clinicians should be aware that knowledge and attitude influence concussion reporting. Clinicians and administrators should make concussion education a priority and encourage an optimal reporting environment to better manage and prevent concussive injuries in young athletes.Journal of athletic training 07/2013; · 1.51 Impact Factor