Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylates serine 31 of tyrosine hydroxylase and regulates its stability
ABSTRACT Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and its activity is regulated by phosphorylation in the N-terminal regulatory domain. The proline-directed serine/threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) plays an important role in diverse neuronal processes. In the present study, we identify TH as a novel substrate of cdk5. We show that cdk5 phosphorylates TH at serine 31 and that this phosphorylation is associated with an increase in total TH activity. In transgenic mice with increased cdk5 activity, the immunoreactivity for phosphorylated TH at Ser-31 is enhanced in neurons of the substantia nigra, a brain region enriched with TH-positive neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that co-expression of cdk5 and its regulatory activator p35 with TH increases the stability of TH. Consistent with these findings, TH protein levels are reduced in cdk5 knock-out mice. Importantly, the TH activity and protein turnover of the phosphorylation-defective mutant TH S31A was not altered by cdk5 activity. Taken together, these data suggest that cdk5 phosphorylation of TH is an important regulator of TH activity through stabilization of TH protein levels.
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ABSTRACT: Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ;10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Brain Research 02/2015; 1604. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.049 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine synthesis, and its expression and activity are regulated by many factors in sympathetic neurons. Cytokines that act through gp130, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) decrease norepinephrine production in sympathetic neurons by suppressing TH mRNA and stimulating degradation of TH protein, leading to the loss of enzyme. Their effect on the activity of TH is unclear, but recent in vivo observations suggest that cytokines may stimulate TH activity. We investigated this issue by quantifying TH protein levels and activity in cultured sympathetic neurons. We also examined the state of TH phosphorylation on serine 31 and 40, sites known to affect TH activity and degradation. We found that CNTF, acting through gp130, stimulated the rate of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine production while at the same time decreasing TH enzyme levels, thereby increasing the specific activity of the enzyme. We also found that phosphorylation of TH on Ser31 was increased, and phosphorylation on Ser40 was decreased, after four days of CNTF exposure. Our data are consistent with previous findings that Ser31 phosphorylation stimulates TH activity, whereas Ser40 phosphorylation can target TH for proteasomal degradation.Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2012; 121(5):700-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07712.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2012; 120(2):199-201. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07562.x · 4.24 Impact Factor