Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylates serine 31 of tyrosine hydroxylase and regulates its stability
ABSTRACT Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, and its activity is regulated by phosphorylation in the N-terminal regulatory domain. The proline-directed serine/threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) plays an important role in diverse neuronal processes. In the present study, we identify TH as a novel substrate of cdk5. We show that cdk5 phosphorylates TH at serine 31 and that this phosphorylation is associated with an increase in total TH activity. In transgenic mice with increased cdk5 activity, the immunoreactivity for phosphorylated TH at Ser-31 is enhanced in neurons of the substantia nigra, a brain region enriched with TH-positive neurons. In addition, we demonstrate that co-expression of cdk5 and its regulatory activator p35 with TH increases the stability of TH. Consistent with these findings, TH protein levels are reduced in cdk5 knock-out mice. Importantly, the TH activity and protein turnover of the phosphorylation-defective mutant TH S31A was not altered by cdk5 activity. Taken together, these data suggest that cdk5 phosphorylation of TH is an important regulator of TH activity through stabilization of TH protein levels.
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ABSTRACT: Cdk5 has been implicated in a multitude of processes in neuronal development, cell biology and physiology. These influence many neurological disorders, but the very breadth of Cdk5 effects has made it difficult to synthesize a coherent picture of the part played by this protein in health and disease. In this review, we focus on the roles of Cdk5 in neuronal function, particularly synaptic homeostasis, plasticity, neurotransmission, subcellular organization, and trafficking. We then discuss how disruption of these Cdk5 activities may initiate or exacerbate neural disorders. A recurring theme will be the sensitivity of Cdk5 sequelae to the precise biological context under consideration.07/2012; 2012(Suppl 1):001. DOI:10.4172/2168-975X.S1-001
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ABSTRACT: Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ;10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Brain Research 02/2015; 1604. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.049 · 2.83 Impact Factor