Melanson KJ, Dell'Olio J, Carpenter MR, Angelopoulos TJ. Changes in multiple health outcomes at 12 and 24 weeks resulting from 12 weeks of exercise counseling with or without dietary counseling in obese adults
We compared health outcomes in obese adults who underwent 12 wk of exercise counseling with or without dietary counseling, followed by 12 wk of observational monitoring.
Ninety adults (77 women and 13 men; 42.6 +/- 6.0 y; body mass index, 31.5 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to exercise-only (EX) or diet-plus-exercise (DEX) groups and counseled weekly by exercise physiologists on a 12-wk walking program. DEX subjects were also counseled by dietitians on a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). From weeks 12 to 24, subjects were monitored but not counseled. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, data collection included body composition (air displacement plethysmography), fitness (maximum oxygen consumption, 3-min step-test, and timed mile), plasma lipids, weight loss efficacy (Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire), quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey-Short Form 36), and mood (Profile of Mood States).
At 12 and 24 wk, weight and body mass index decreased in DEX subjects (both P < 0.05) but not in EX subjects. However, lean body mass increased significantly in EX (24 wk, P < 0.05) but not in DEX subjects. In both groups, fat mass decreased (P < 0.05 for EX subjects at 24 wk; P < 0.05 for DEX subjects at 12 and 24 wk) and waist circumference decreased (P < 0.05 for EX subjects at 12 and 24 wk; P < 0.05 for DEX subjects at 12 and 24 wk). At 12 and 24 wk, DEX subjects showed decreased levels of total plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (both P < 0.05) and improvements with regard to the Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire (P < 0.05), three domains of the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey-Short Form 36 (all P < 0.05), and three domains of the Profile of Mood States (all P < 0.05) that were not seen in EX subjects.
Exercise counseling for 12 wk in obese adults improves some body composition indices that can be sustained over 12 wk of monitoring. The addition of dietary counseling increases improvements in body composition, lipid profiles, and several psychological parameters.
"Twelve weeks of education on both diet and exercise elicits significant improvements in dietary intake and frequent exercising, which ultimately accomplished improvements in body composition, waist circumference, aerobic fitness and other factors (Melanson et al., 2004). Improvements were seen in the exercise counseling group but the changes were not as extreme and promising as in the group with both exercise and dietary counseling (Melanson et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimizing the health and quality of life for people who have survived cancer requires a continuing focus on health promotion
and behavior change to reduce behavioral health risks. A focus on optimizing health behavior is critical for people surviving
cancer because they are at increased risk for the development of chronic health conditions. Some of these conditions may develop
from previous cancer therapy, called late effects, and include effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine systems
[1–8]. Recurrence of primary cancers or the development of secondary cancers, are also of concern. In addition, survivors
are vulnerable to preexisting risk factors such as older age, preexisting comorbidities, genetic risks, as well as behavioral
and lifestyle factors [9, 10].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air-displacement plethysmography holds promise as an alternative to more traditional body composition techniques, although our understanding of air-displacement plethysmography is less than complete. Specifically, factors that influence its validity and application in certain populations, for example children, the obese, and athletes, must be better understood. This review will summarize recent findings on the validity and precision of air-displacement plethysmography and will focus primarily on papers published since 2004, with particular attention on its use in infants.
The most significant recent findings in the air-displacement plethysmography literature are mechanistic in nature specifically dealing with measurement issues such as heat, moisture, clothing, and recently, inter-device variability.
It is important to recognize that air-displacement plethysmography can be a practical instrument in the evaluation of body composition in a wide range of populations. Therefore, based on the body of literature that has emerged, air-displacement plethysmography appears to be a suitable and reliable instrument in the assessment of body composition. Of particular interest is its use in pediatric and obese individuals, areas requiring further study. Research is also needed to help us better understand sources of measurement error.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 12/2005; 8(6):624-9. DOI:10.1097/01.mco.0000171127.44525.07 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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