Changes in multiple health outcomes at 12 and 24 weeks resulting from 12 weeks of exercise, counseling with or without dietary counseling in obese adults
ABSTRACT We compared health outcomes in obese adults who underwent 12 wk of exercise counseling with or without dietary counseling, followed by 12 wk of observational monitoring.
Ninety adults (77 women and 13 men; 42.6 +/- 6.0 y; body mass index, 31.5 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to exercise-only (EX) or diet-plus-exercise (DEX) groups and counseled weekly by exercise physiologists on a 12-wk walking program. DEX subjects were also counseled by dietitians on a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). From weeks 12 to 24, subjects were monitored but not counseled. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, data collection included body composition (air displacement plethysmography), fitness (maximum oxygen consumption, 3-min step-test, and timed mile), plasma lipids, weight loss efficacy (Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire), quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey-Short Form 36), and mood (Profile of Mood States).
At 12 and 24 wk, weight and body mass index decreased in DEX subjects (both P < 0.05) but not in EX subjects. However, lean body mass increased significantly in EX (24 wk, P < 0.05) but not in DEX subjects. In both groups, fat mass decreased (P < 0.05 for EX subjects at 24 wk; P < 0.05 for DEX subjects at 12 and 24 wk) and waist circumference decreased (P < 0.05 for EX subjects at 12 and 24 wk; P < 0.05 for DEX subjects at 12 and 24 wk). At 12 and 24 wk, DEX subjects showed decreased levels of total plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (both P < 0.05) and improvements with regard to the Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire (P < 0.05), three domains of the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey-Short Form 36 (all P < 0.05), and three domains of the Profile of Mood States (all P < 0.05) that were not seen in EX subjects.
Exercise counseling for 12 wk in obese adults improves some body composition indices that can be sustained over 12 wk of monitoring. The addition of dietary counseling increases improvements in body composition, lipid profiles, and several psychological parameters.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):1-36. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109849 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between factors having an influence on obesity improvement programs and psychosocial factors from a more comprehensive point of view. We studied a total of 43 subjects with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or higher who wished to take part in an obesity improvement program and agreed to participate in the study. We conducted an obesity improvement program based on behavior change theories for three months and evaluated physical composition, mental health, social support, stress-coping and the like before intervention and immediately after completion of the program. The average weight showed a significant decrease from 69.0 ± 8.8 kg to 65.7 ± 8.7 kg before and after intervention (p<0.001), respectively. It was also shown that the presence or absence of chronic diseases, social support from a spouse and the decrease of avoidance stress coping were related to weight loss. The findings suggest that it will be further necessary to continue working on the need to enhance awareness about stress with a view to preventing occurrence of rebound after the end of weight loss programs and acquisition coping techniques, apart from the cooperation of attending doctors, strengthening of social support from family and friends and managing stress for the duration of the program.Journal of Rural Medicine 01/2010; 5(2):175-83. DOI:10.2185/jrm.5.175
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ABSTRACT: Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (-2.9 to -17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (-1.1 to -5.1 kg/m(2)), 20 studies measured % body fat (-0.7 to -10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (-0.9 to -14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.Journal of nutrition and metabolism 01/2014; 2014:421423. DOI:10.1155/2014/421423