Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in experimental post-transplant obliterative bronchiolitis.
ABSTRACT Epithelial cell injury, inflammation, progressive fibrosis, and airway obliteration are histological features of post-transplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is expressed in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Our aim was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in post-transplant OB by using a heterotopic bronchial porcine model. Bronchial allografts from non-related donors were transplanted subcutaneously into 24 random-bred domestic pigs, each weighing about 20 kg. Groups studied had grafts, non-treated allografts, allografts given cyclosporine A (CsA), methylprednisolone (MP), and azathioprine (Aza), and allografts given CsA, MP, and everolimus. Grafts were serially harvested during a follow-up period of 21 days for histology (H&E) and immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was performed with monoclonal IgG against human COX-2 peptide, and histological alterations and immunohistochemical positivity were graded on a scale from 0 to 5. Epithelial COX-2 index was calculated by multiplying the percentage of positive cells by grade of epithelial COX-2 intensity. Ischaemic epithelial loss, evident in all implants, recovered rapidly in autografts, and bronchi remained patent. Epithelial loss in non-treated allografts preceded fibroblast proliferation, resulting in total luminal obliteration. In CsA-, MP-, and Aza-treated allografts epithelial destruction and luminal obliteration were delayed, and these were prevented in CsA-, MP-, and everolimus-treated allografts. COX-2 expression due to operative ischaemia was evident in all implants on day 2. Thereafter, the epithelial COX-2 index preceded epithelial injury and obliteration. During the inflammatory response and fibroblast proliferation, COX-2 expression occurred in macrophages and fibroblasts. In conclusion, in the early stage of OB development, COX-2 induction occurred in airway epithelial cells prior to luminal obliteration. In addition, the observation that COX-2 expression in macrophages and fibroblasts paralleled the onset of inflammation and fibroblast proliferation indicates a role in OB development, but the causal relationships need further study.
Article: Local C-reactive protein expression in obliterative lesions and the bronchial wall in posttransplant obliterative bronchiolitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The local immunoreactivity of C-reactive protein (CRP) was studied in a heterotopic porcine model of posttranplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Bronchial allografts and control autografts were examined serially 2-28 days after subcutaneous transplantation. The autografts stayed patent. In the allografts, proliferation of inflammatory cells (P < .0001) and fibroblasts (P = .02) resulted in occlusion of the bronchial lumens (P < .01). Influx of CD4+ (P < .001) and CD8+ (P < .0001) cells demonstrated allograft immune response. CRP positivity simultaneously increased in the bronchial walls (P < .01), in macrophages, myofibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Local CRP was predictive of features characteristic of OB (R = 0.456-0.879, P < .05-P < .0001). Early obliterative lesions also showed CRP positivity, but not mature, collagen-rich obliterative plugs (P < .05). During OB development, CRP is localized in inflammatory cells, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells probably as a part of the local inflammatory response.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2009; 2009:510254. · 3.26 Impact Factor
Article: Ingraft chimerism in lung transplantation--a study in a porcine model of obliterative bronchiolitis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bronchial epithelium is a target of the alloimmune response in lung transplantation, and intact epithelium may protect allografts from rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Herein we study the influence of chimerism on bronchial epithelium and OB development in pigs. A total of 54 immunosuppressed and unimmunosuppressed bronchial allografts were serially obtained 2-90 days after transplantation. Histology (H&E) was assessed and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for Y chromosomes using pig-specific DNA-label was used to detect recipient derived cells in graft epithelium and bronchial wall, and donor cell migration to recipient organs. Ingraft chimerism was studied by using male recipients with female donors, whereas donor cell migration to recipient organs was studied using female recipients with male donors. Early appearance of recipient-derived cells in the airway epithelium appeared predictive of epithelial destruction (R=0.610-0.671 and p<0.05) and of obliteration of the bronchial lumen (R=0.698 and p<0.01). All allografts with preserved epithelium showed epithelial chimerism throughout the follow-up. Antirejection medication did not prevent, but delayed the appearance of Y chromosome positive cells in the epithelium (p<0.05), or bronchial wall (p<0.05). In this study we demonstrate that early appearance of Y chromosomes in the airway epithelium predicts features characteristic of OB. Chimerism occurred in all allografts, including those without features of OB. Therefore we suggest that ingraft chimerism may be a mechanism involved in the repair of alloimmune-mediated tissue injury after transplantation.Respiratory research 01/2011; 12:56. · 3.36 Impact Factor