GI262570, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, changes electrolytes and water reabsorption from the distal nephron in rats

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 3.86). 03/2005; 312(2):718-25. DOI: 10.1124/jpet.104.074088
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists have been shown to have significant therapeutic benefits such as desirable glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients; however, these agents may cause fluid retention in susceptible individuals. Since PPARgamma is expressed selectively in distal nephron epithelium, we studied the mechanism of PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention using male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either vehicle or GI262570 (farglitazar), a potent PPARgamma agonist. GI262570 (20 mg/kg/day) induced a plasma volume expansion. The plasma volume expansion was accompanied by a small but significant decrease in plasma potassium concentration. Small but significant increases in plasma sodium and chloride concentrations were also observed. These changes in serum electrolytes suggested an activation of the renal mineralocorticoid response system; however, GI262570-treated rats had lower plasma levels of aldosterone compared with vehicle-treated controls. mRNA levels for a group of genes involved in distal nephron sodium and water absorption are changed in the kidney medulla with GI262570 treatment. In addition, due to a possible rebound effect on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, a low dose of amiloride did not prevent GI262570-induced fluid retention. On the contrary, the rebound effect after amiloride treatment potentiated GI262570-induced plasma volume expansion. This is at least partially due to a synergistic effect of GI262570 and the rebound from amiloride treatment on ENaCalpha expression. In summary, our current data suggest that GI262570 can increase water and sodium reabsorption in distal nephron by stimulating the ENaC and Na,K-ATPase system. This may be an important mechanism for PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention.

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs, like rosiglitazone (RGZ)) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists used to treat type 2 diabetes. Clinical limitations include TZD-induced fluid retention and body weight (BW) increase, which are inhibited by amiloride, an epithelial-sodium channel (ENaC) blocker. RGZ-induced fluid retention is maintained in mice with αENaC knockdown in the collecting duct (CD). Since ENaC in the connecting tubule (CNT) rather than in CD appears to be critical for normal NaCl retention, we aimed to further explore the role of ENaC in CNT in RGZ-induced fluid retention. Methods: Mice with conditional inactivation of αENaC in both CNT and CD were used (αENaC lox/lox AQP2-Cre; 'αENaC-CNT/CD-KO') and compared with littermate controls (αENaC lox/lox mice; 'WT'). BW was monitored and total body water (TBW) and extracellular fluid volume (ECF) were determined by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) before and after RGZ (320 mg/kg diet for 10 days). Results: On regular NaCl diet, αENaC-CNT/CD-KO had normal BW, TBW, ECF, hematocrit, and plasma Na(+), K(+), and creatinine, associated with an increase in plasma aldosterone compared with WT. Challenging αENaC-CNT/CD-KO with a low NaCl diet unmasked impaired NaCl and K homeostasis, consistent with effective knockdown of αENaC. In WT, RGZ increased BW (+6.1%), TBW (+8.4%) and ECF (+10%), consistent with fluid retention. These changes were significantly attenuated in αENaC-CNT/CD-KO (+3.4, 1.3, and 4.3%). Conclusion: Together with the previous studies, the current results are consistent with a role of αENaC in CNT in RGZ-induced fluid retention, which dovetails with the physiological relevance of ENaC in this segment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    12/2014; DOI:10.1159/000370254
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