Relationship of Alcohol Drinking Pattern to Risk of Hypertension A Population-Based Study

University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Campania, Italy
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 01/2005; 44(6):813-9. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000146537.03103.f2
Source: PubMed


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between heavy alcohol use and hypertension, but few studies have directly addressed the role of drinking pattern. This study was designed to investigate the association of current alcohol consumption and aspects of drinking pattern with hypertension risk in a sample of 2609 white men and women from western New York, aged 35 to 80 years, and free from other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension was defined by systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed after adjustment for several covariates. Compared with lifetime abstainers, participants reporting drinking on a daily basis (1.75 [1.13 to 2.72]) or mostly without food (1.64 [1.08 to 2.51]) exhibited significantly higher risk of hypertension. When analyses were restricted to current drinkers, daily drinkers and participants consuming alcohol without food exhibited a significantly higher risk of hypertension compared with those drinking less than weekly (1.65 [1.18 to 2.30]) and those drinking mostly with food (1.49 [1.10 to 2.00]), respectively. After additional adjustment for the amount of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, the results were follows: 0.90 (0.58 to 1.41) for daily drinkers and 1.41 (1.04 to 1.91) for drinkers without food. For predominant beverage preference, no consistent association with hypertension risk was found across the various types of beverages considered (beer, wine, and liquor). In conclusion, drinking outside meals appears to have a significant effect on hypertension risk independent of the amount of alcohol consumed.

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Available from: Thomas H Nochajski, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "A large population-based study in the United States reported that mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a favorable influence on lipids, waist circumference, and fasting insulin compared with nondrinkers.8 Increased alcohol consumption, however, has also been reported to be associated with hypertension.9 Furthermore, insulin resistance, which is the key pathophysiology of MetS, has been reported to relate to alcohol consumption in a U-shaped manner.10 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Whether cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains controversial. This study investigated the associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with MetS in a male population in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, MetS status, and other related information from 8169 men aged 19–97 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of MetS. Results The prevalence of MetS was 15.2% in the study population. Proportions of current smokers and drinkers were 48.2% and 46.5%, respectively. Adjusted OR of MetS was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.01–1.79) among smokers who smoked ≥40 cigarettes/day compared with nonsmokers and 1.22 (95% CI 1.03–1.46) for those who consumed 0.1–99 grams of alcohol/day compared with nondrinkers. Adjusted OR was 2.32 (95% CI 1.45–3.73) among ex-drinkers who never smoked, 1.98 (95% CI 1.35–2.91) among ex-drinkers who were current smokers, and 1.34 (95% CI 1.08–1.68) among current drinkers who never smoked compared with those who neither smoked nor drank. There was a significant interaction between smoking and drinking alcohol on MetS (P for interaction is 0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that smoking and drinking is associated with higher prevalence of MetS. Interactions between smoking and drinking on the risk of MetS in men in China may also exist. Our findings need to be confirmed in future case-control or cohort studies.
    Journal of Epidemiology 06/2014; 24(5). DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20130112 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in cohort studies, moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with decreased incidence of hypertension [4] and improved cardiovascular biomarkers such as higher HDL-cholesterol [5] and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) [6,7]. In some studies, even moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system [4,8]. The inconsistencies between studies and the well-documented J-shaped relationship between alcohol and blood pressure have complicated recommendations about the potential benefit of moderate alcohol consumption [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol intake has been shown to have a J-shaped association with blood pressure (BP). However, this association has not been examined in mixed race populations or in people with diabetes where tighter blood pressure control is recommended. Participants in the REGARDS study who were 45 years or older (n = 30,239) were included. Medical history (including self-reported alcohol intake) was collected by telephone while blood collection and clinical measurements were done during an in-home visit. We defined diabetes as use of medications and/or fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL and hypertension as use of blood pressure lowering medications and/or BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg or BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg in people with diabetes. After adjustment for confounders, heavy drinking was associated with an increased odds of hypertension (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.87). Diabetes and gender significantly modified (interaction P < 0.05 for both) the association between alcohol use and hypertension, although heavy drinking remained associated with increased odds of hypertension in sub-group analyses. We did not observe the previously described J-shaped relationship in any sub-group except white females. These data suggest heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poor BP control and that heavy drinkers may want to consider limiting alcohol intake in order to manage hypertension.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 05/2011; 8(5):1601-12. DOI:10.3390/ijerph8051601 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the pattern of drinking is likely important, with more recent studies fi nding a reduced risk for higher frequencies of moderate amounts and increased risk from heavy occasions (Breslow and Graubard, 2008; Dorn et al., 2007). Heavy drinking, especially daily drinking and drinking without food, has also been linked to increased risk of hypertension (Chen et al., 2008; Stewart et al., 2008), an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (Stranges et al., 2004). Alcohol consumption has also been found to be associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, seen as a key potential mechanism for any cardioprotective effects (Burr et al., 1986; Djoussé et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to estimate relationships between life-course drinking patterns and the risks of self-reported diabetes, heart problems, and hypertension. Respondents to the 2005 National Alcohol Survey, age 40 and older, reported ever having a doctor or health professional diagnose each of the health-problem outcomes. Retrospective earlier-life drinking patterns were characterized by lifetime abstention and the frequency of 5+ drinking days (i.e., days on which five or more drinks were consumed) in the respondent's teens, 20s, and 30s. Past-year drinking patterns were measured through intake volume and 5+ days. Potential confounders in the domains of demographics, socioeconomic resources, and other health-risk variables-that is, depression, distress, sense of coherence, body mass index, tobacco use, marijuana use, childhood abuse, and family history of alcohol problems--were controlled through propensity-score matching. After matching, lifetime abstainers were found to be at increased risk of diabetes compared with both lifetime and current moderate drinkers. Exdrinkers were found to be at increased risk of diabetes, heart problems, and hypertension. Higher volume drinkers without monthly 5+ days were found to be at reduced risk of diabetes relative to moderate-volume current drinkers. Heavy-occasion drinkers were found to be at increased risk of hypertension. Regular lower quantity alcohol intake may be protective against adult onset of diabetes, but no evidence of protection from heart problems or hypertension was found. Both life course-defined and past year-defined drinking groups exhibit substantial clustering of confounding risk variables, indicating the need for modeling strategies like propensity-score matching. Increased risks among exdrinkers suggest a substantial "sick-quitter" effect.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 07/2010; 71(4):515-25. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2010.71.515 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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