Contrasting prevalence of and demographic disparities in the World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of metabolic syndrome among adolescents.
ABSTRACT To determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adolescents by using definitions from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and to compare the populations identified by these definitions.
School-based, cross-sectional study of 1513 black, white, and Hispanic teens who had a fasting morning blood sample drawn and a physical examination.
Overall, the prevalence of NCEP-defined MS was 4.2% and of WHO-defined MS was 8.4%. MS was found almost exclusively among obese teens, for whom prevalence of NCEP-defined MS was 19.5% and prevalence of WHO-defined MS was 38.9%. Agreement between definitions was poor (kappa statistic=0.41). No race or sex differences were present for NCEP-defined MS. However, nonwhite teens were more likely to have MS by WHO criteria (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.87), and MS was more common among girls if the WHO-based definition was used (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.88).
Among adolescents, obesity is a powerful risk for MS. Important demographic and clinical differences exist in the typology of MS, depending on the definition. Such discrepancies suggest that the concept of a common pathologic syndrome or etiologic mechanism underlying MS as defined by these guidelines may be flawed.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Elizabeth Goodman, Feb 24, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Resul Yilmaz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: The definition of childhood metabolic syndrome has not been described clearly. Childhood obesity is increasing gradually, and the incidence of childhood metabolic syndrome is also rising. We aimed to show metabolic syndrome components and preventive factors for metabolic syndrome in obese children Methods: In the present study, 187 obese children and adolescents 5-18 years old were investigated retrospectively. Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, body mass index, blood pressure values, insulin levels, oral glucose tolerance test results, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were obtained from hospital records. A body mass index > 95th percentile was considered obese. Insulin resistance was calculated according to the oral glucose tolerance test with 1.75 g/kg glucose maximum 75 g glucose. The insulin sensitivity index and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA IR) were calculated and compared. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the modified WHO criteria adapted for metabolic syndrome in children. Results: Abnormal glucose homeostasis was detected in 53% of subjects. Dyslipidaemia was present in 45.7% and hypertension in 16.6% of the patients. Metabolic syndrome was identified in 24.6% of obese children and adolescents. High HOMA-IR values and fasting glucose levels, elevated triglycerides and lower HDL levels were an indication of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Obesity and insulin resistance are significant factors for the development of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. In obese children higher HDL levels are preventive factor for metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity and insulin resistance may decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro 01/2010; 86(2). DOI:10.1590/S0021-75572010000200004
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL). Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%), 30 normal-weight children (46.2%), 12 overweight children (18.4%), and 21 obese children (32.3%). The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body-weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma concentration were essentially zero. Diagnostic analysis indicated a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 90%, and a sensitivity and specificity both of approximately 75%. The salivary glucose concentration did not vary with saliva flow rate. Taking into account the threshold response characteristics of the salivary glucose concentration response, these results suggest that testing salivary glucose levels may be useful as a screening assay for high fasting plasma glucose levels. The low false positive value is important to assure a low fraction of missed diagnoses.Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2015; 8:9-15. DOI:10.2147/DMSO.S72744