Three-year outcomes of dietary fatty acid modification and house dust mite reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 11/2004; 114(4):807-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.06.057
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Two factors thought to influence the risk of asthma are the promoting effect of sensitization to house dust mites and the preventive effect of increased omega-3 fatty acids. Although house dust mite allergen avoidance has been used as a preventive strategy in several trials, the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the primary prevention of asthma and allergic disease is not known.
To measure the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and house dust mite allergen avoidance in children with a family history of asthma.
A total of 616 children at high risk of asthma were enrolled antenatally in a randomized controlled trial, and 526 children remained in the trial at age 3 years. The outcomes were symptoms of allergic disease and allergen sensitization.
There was a significant 10.0% (95% CI, 3.7-16.4) reduction in the prevalence of cough in atopic children in the active diet group ( P=.003; number needed to treat, 10) but a negligible 1.1% (95% CI, -7.1 to 9.5) reduction cough among nonatopic children. There was a 7.2% (95% CI, 10.11-14.3) reduction in sensitization to house dust mite in the active allergen avoidance group ( P=.05; number needed to treat, 14). No significant differences in wheeze were found with either intervention.
These results suggest that our interventions, designed to be used in simple public health campaigns, may have a role in preventing the development of allergic sensitization and airways disease in early childhood. This offers the prospect of reducing allergic disease in later life.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Allergology International 01/2015; 64(1):27-34. DOI:10.1016/j.alit.2014.08.003
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children's health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 1688 exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study.
    International journal of environmental research and public health 02/2015; 12(2):1687-1702. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120201687 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma.
    International Immunopharmacology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.06.005 · 2.71 Impact Factor