Diagnosing ICD-10 depressive episodes: superior criterion validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire.
ABSTRACT Diagnosing and monitoring depression in primary care remains an issue of significant public health concern. Clinicians and researchers need to know if any one screening instrument is superior to the others in diagnosing ICD-10 depressive episodes. This study aimed to examine the criterion validity for diagnosing ICD-10 depressive episodes of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in comparison with 2 well-established instruments, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the WHO Well-Being Index 5 (WBI-5).
Five hundred and one medical outpatients completed the questionnaires and had a clinical interview. The presence of a depressive episode was determined with the International Diagnostic Checklists (IDCL) for ICD-10 as the criterion standard. Coefficient kappa (kappa), sensitivities and specificities were calculated and a statistical comparison of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves was performed.
Diagnostic agreement between the questionnaires and the IDCL was moderate (kappa=0.34-0.56), with the highest values for the PHQ. While all 3 questionnaires had reasonable sensitivity and specificity, the operating characteristics for the PHQ were significantly superior to both the HADS and the WBI-5 (p=0.02).
Any of the 3 screening instruments can be recommended for clinical use. However, this is the first comparative study to demonstrate the diagnostic advantage of a particular depression-screening instrument using the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. The superior criterion validity of the PHQ is likely attributable to its closer representation of the current concept of depressive disorders.
SourceAvailable from: Layla BanihashemiSocial Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 01/2014; DOI:10.1093/scan/nsu073 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental disorder with grave burdens for affected individuals as well as for the healthcare system. One of the strongest predictors of a poor outcome is a long Duration of Untreated Illness (DUI), which is defined as the time between the onset of the disease and treatment initiation. Reducing the DUI is an important step to optimize care of individuals with AN. In order to achieve this aim, systemic public health interventions are necessary. Objective of this study is to evaluate a systemic public health intervention at Community level aiming to reduce the DUI in individuals with AN.Methods/designThe intervention includes the establishment of a network of health care professionals within the area of eating disorders (EDs), the development of an internet-based treatment guide, the presentation of informative short-films about EDs in cinemas and a corresponding poster campaign as well as a special outpatient clinic. For the evaluating study a pre-post between-subject design is chosen. The DUI, and the duration until first contact (DUC) with a health care professional, ED pathology as well as comorbidity are assessed before and after the systemic intervention is carried out.DiscussionThe study attempts to provide evidence of the effectiveness of an ED-related systematic public health intervention. Additionally, the study will lead to a better understanding of the DUI, which is essential in order to improve care of individuals with AN.Trial registrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN44979231; Registered 11 November 2011.BMC Psychiatry 11/2014; 14(1):300. DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0300-1 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine anxiety and depression, quality of life, and their determinants in long-term survivors of malignant melanoma. In a state cancer registry a cohort of survivors of malignant melanoma was contacted via the physician registered. Of 1302 contactable patients, 689 (52.2%) completed a questionnaire including the Patient Health Questionnaire with generalized anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9) and the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ 30). Based on multiple regression analysis, predictors of quality of life and distress were identified. Comparison data were assessed in two waves of representative face-to-face household surveys of the adult German population. An average of 8.4 (5.7 to 12.2) years after diagnosis, distress was higher in women compared to men and in middle adulthood (vs. older patients). Symptoms were higher in women than in men, and there was a decline of functioning and increase of symptoms across the age range of both genders. Compared to the general population, there were slightly increased depression and anxiety (only women), but no impaired global quality of life. Yet, survivors evidenced functional decline and more physical symptoms. Distress and reduced quality of life were consistently predicted by lack of social support, fear of recurrence, pessimism and self-blame. Distress was increased by a family history of melanoma, and additional mental and somatic diseases. Overall, long-term survivors have adjusted well achieving a global quality of life comparable to the general population. Yet, compromised functional dimensions, physical symptoms and distress indicate the need for integrating psychooncological screening into oncological follow-up, which might be guided by predictors such as family history or social support. Further prospective study is needed to determine the course of adaptation to the disease and corroborate the risk factors identified.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116440. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116440 · 3.53 Impact Factor