Antimicrobial resistance and phage types of human and non-human Salmonella enterica isolates in Ireland, 1998-2003.
ABSTRACT Between 1998 and 2003, 5,161 isolates (3,182 human) of Salmonella enterica were received by the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory of Ireland. Serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and phage typing were performed by standard methods. The number of isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium decreased from 579 (80%) in 1998 to 208 (19%) in 2003, while S. enterica serovar Enteritidis increased from 59 (8%) in 1998 to 219 (20%) in 2003. Definitive (DT) phage types 104 and DT104b accounted for a declining proportion of all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates (from n = 523 [90%] in 1998 to 126 [60%] in 2003). Numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 declined from 50 (85%) in 1998 to 59 (27%) in 2003. Twenty-eight isolates of typhoidal Salmonella were received with a history of recent travel in 17 cases. Resistance to multiple (four or more) antimicrobial agents was related to serotype and, where applicable, phage type, and was common in Salmonella Typhimurium. Salmonella Typhimurium predominated among isolates from cattle and pigs (n = 213 [58%]), while Salmonella Livingstone (n = 327) and S. Kentucky (n = 227) were predominant in isolates from poultry (total n = 554 [43%]). This paper discusses trends, and their implications, in Irish salmonella isolates since the establishment of the Reference Laboratory.
Article: Cost-effective application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to typing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is frequently isolated from humans and animals. Phage typing is historically the first-line reference typing technique in Europe. It is rapid and convenient for laboratories with appropriate training and experience, and costs of consumables are low. Phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on 503 isolates of serovar Typhimurium. Twenty-nine phage types and 53 PFGE patterns were observed. Most isolates of phage types DT104, DT104b, and U310 are not distinguishable from other members of their phage type by PFGE. By contrast, PFGE of isolates of phage types DT193 and U302 shows great heterogeneity. Analysis of experience with PFGE and phage typing can facilitate the selective application of PFGE to maximize the yield of epidemiologically relevant additional information while controlling costs.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/2006; 71(12):8236-40. · 3.83 Impact Factor