Incidence of juvenile-onset Crohn’s disease in Scotland: Association with northern latitude and affluence

Gastrointestinal Unit, University of Edinburgh Department of Medical Sciences, Western General Hospital, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 16.72). 11/2004; 127(4):1051-7.
Source: PubMed


The incidence of Crohn's disease in Scottish children has increased steadily over 30 years. Many studies have investigated genetic influence or possible links with childhood events. We aimed to study sociodemographic and/or geographic distribution of juvenile=onset Crohn's disease in Scotland.
Using a previously established and validated database covering the entire Scottish population, 580 Scottish children (<16 years of age at symptom onset) with inflammatory bowel disease incident between 1981 and 1995 were identified. Postcodes of incident cases were classed for geographic location and material deprivation. Incidence rates (/100,000/year) were sex standardized to the 1991 census population. The effects of sex, geographic location, time, and deprivation category were estimated from a multifactorial Poisson regression model.
The incidence of juvenile-onset Crohn's disease was 2.3 (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) for the time period 1981 to 1995 and was significantly higher in northern (3.1, 95% CI: 2.6-3.8) than in southern Scotland (2.1, 95% CI: 1.9-2.4, P < 0.001). The incidence of juvenile-onset ulcerative colitis did not show north/south variation ( P = 0.677). The relative risks of developing CD were significantly lower in postcode areas with deprivation categories 2-7 as compared with deprivation score 1 (most affluent, P = 0.033). This pattern was not seen for UC.
There was an increased incidence of juvenile-onset Crohn's disease in northern compared with southern Scotland. Children from more affluent areas had a higher relative risk of developing Crohn's disease. Juvenile onset ulcerative colitis did not show north/south variation in incidence or association with affluence.

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    • "It was concluded that the excess is less than expected on the basis of previous studies that may suggest an increase in the incidence of IBD in Southern Europe whereas those in the north may have reached a plateau. However, some recent studies still show significant difference in frequency of IBD within countries in children and in adults [6] [7] [19] [20]. The etiology of the north-south gradient is not delineated. "
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    ABSTRACT: New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn's disease (CD) based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for "everyday practice." These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 03/2014; 2014:904307. DOI:10.1155/2014/904307 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    • "The incidence of paediatric-onset UC did not, instead, show any north/south variations (P = 0.677). While children from more affluent areas had a higher relative risk of developing CD, paediatric-onset UC did not seem to be associated with affluence [9] (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: . The number of patients of all age brackets diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has risen dramatically worldwide over the past 50 years. IBD’s changing epidemiology suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Aim . To review studies carried out worldwide analyzing IBD epidemiology. Methods . A Medline search indicating as keywords “Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” “epidemiology,” “natural history,” “Crohn’s Disease,” “Ulcerative Colitis,” and “IBD Unclassified” was performed. A selection of clinical cohort and systematic review studies that were carried out between 2002 and 2013 was reviewed. Studies referring to an earlier date were also considered whenever the data were relevant to our review. Results . The current mean prevalence of IBD in the total population of Western countries is estimated at 1/1,000. The highest prevalence and incidence rates of IBD worldwide are reported from Canada. Just as urbanization and socioeconomic development, the incidence of IBD is rising in China. Conclusions . Multicenter national registers and international networks can provide information on IBD epidemiology and lead to hypotheses about its causes and possible management strategies. The rising trend in the disease’s incidence in developing nations suggests that its epidemiological evolution is linked to industrialization and modern Westernized lifestyles.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 12/2013; 2013(4):829040. DOI:10.1155/2013/829040 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Studies have found that disease distribution and phenotypic appearance differ significantly between ethnic groups and even within populations [19-21] although other studies disagree [22]. Thus, uneven geographic distribution of IBD has been found within European countries such as Scotland [23] and France [24], and also within the USA [25]. Apart from varying environmental factors that affect susceptible individuals, genetic heterogeneity between different populations itself plays an important role. "
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    ABSTRACT: Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome-wide significance in the combined analyses of all the panels. This replication study supports an important role for the studied rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP, but not for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7), in UC etiology in the Danish, Baltic, and Norwegian populations. Significant genetic heterogeneity was suggested for rs7520292, rs12518307, and rs2395609 (TCP11) in UC etiology between the Nordic and the other European populations.
    BMC Medical Genetics 10/2011; 12(1):139. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-12-139 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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