Evaluation of the current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines for screening and confirming extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species from bacteremic patients.
ABSTRACT The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations for screening and confirming the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were evaluated in 115 isolates of Escherichia coli and 157 isolates of Klebsiella spp. from Israeli patients with bacteremia. All isolates were screened using cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime discs. Confirmatory tests using pairs of discs containing ceftazidime, cefotaxime, or cefpodoxime in which clavulanic acid was added to one of the discs in each pair [inhibitor-potentiated disc diffusion test (IPDDT)] and two double-sided E test strips containing ceftazidime or cefotaxime with and without clavulanic acid were performed on all isolates regardless of the results of screening tests. Isolates that tested positive by one or more confirmatory tests were considered ESBL producers. Overall, 69 (25.4%) strains were found to be ESBL producers. The sensitivity of the NCCLS screening criteria ranged between 98.6% for cefotaxime and 92.8% for ceftazidime, and the specificity ranged between 100% for cefotaxime and cefpodoxime and 99.0% for ceftazidime. The sensitivity of the confirmatory tests ranged between 97.1% for the cefotaxime E test and only 75.4% for the ceftazidime IPDDT discs. All 64 isolates that fell in the intermediate and resistant categories for cefotaxime, as well as all 41 in the same categories for ceftazidime and 68 of 69 in these categories for cefpodoxime, were confirmed as ESBL producers. The use of multiple antimicrobial discs for screening isolates and combinations of IPPDT discs is needed to improve the sensitivity of confirmatory testing. It is recommended that isolates falling in the intermediate and resistant categories in disc diffusion testing be reported as ESBL producers. The use of confirmatory tests should be limited to organisms with inhibition zone diameters ranging between the NCCLS recommendations for ESBL screening and the intermediate category breakpoints.
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ABSTRACT: During an 8-month period, 55 episodes of nosocomial bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae species were identified in a tertiary medical center, of which 26 (47%) were caused by extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms. ESBL production was associated with resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole compared with non-ESBL-producing organisms (p < 0.01). By multivariate analysis, infection with ESBL-producing organisms was associated with previous antibiotic therapy and central venous catheter insertion and mortality was associated with heart failure, malignancy and a prolonged hospital stay. Nineteen (73%) patients infected with ESBL-producing organisms received adequate empirical antibiotic therapy and all 26 received adequate definitive therapy. The in-hospital mortality rate did not differ between patients infected with ESBL producers and those infected by non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae species [13/26 (50%) and 11/29 (38%), respectively] (p > 0.5).Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2001; 33(3):188-93. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes produced in some gram-negative bacilli that mediate resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. They are most common in Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli but are present in a variety of Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance mediated by these enzymes can be difficult to detect depending on the antimicrobial agents tested. AmpC beta-lactamases are related to the chromosomal enzymes of Enterobacter and Citrobacter spp. and also mediate resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam in addition to cephamycins, such as cefoxitin. Unlike ESBLs, however, AmpC beta-lactamases are not inhibited by clavulanic acid or other similar compounds. To assess the abilities of various antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect ESBLs, we sent three ESBL-producing organisms, one AmpC-producing organism, and a control strain that was susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins to 38 laboratories in Connecticut for testing. Eight (21.0%) of 38 labs failed to detect extended-spectrum cephalosporin or aztreonam resistance in any of the ESBL- or AmpC-producing isolates. Errors were encountered with both automated and disk diffusion methods. Conversely, seven (18.4%) labs categorized at least some of the four resistant isolates as potential ESBL producers and reported the results with the extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam as resistant as suggested by current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. The percentage of laboratories that failed to detect resistance in the ESBL or AmpC isolates ranged from 23.7 to 31.6% depending on the type of enzyme present in the test organism. This survey suggests that many laboratories have difficulty detecting resistance in ESBL and AmpC-producing organisms and may be unaware of the NCCLS guidelines on modifying susceptibility testing reports for ESBL-producing strains.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2000; 37(12):4065-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequency of occurrence of ESBL-producing clinical strains varies widely in distinct geographic areas. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence, the preferred substrate, and the co-resistance patterns of the ESBL-producing isolates collected from the Asia-Pacific region and South Africa through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between January 1998 and December 1999. A total of 1,377 Escherichia coli, 678 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 138 Proteus mirabilis isolates were collected from diverse body sites. Using NCCLS criteria, 139 E. coli (10.1%), 171 K. pneumoniae (25.2%), and 2 P. mirabilis (1.4%) had presumptive ESBL phenotypes; 100, 146 and 1 strain respectively were confirmed to be ESBL producers on clavulanate enhancement testing. The frequency of occurrence of confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli by the medical centers varied from 0-1% for centers located in Australia to 13-35% for mainland Chinese centers. The higher prevalence rates (>20%) of ESBL K. pneumoniae phenotypes were observed in all mainland Chinese centers, one Japanese and one Taiwanese center, and in the Philippine, South African, Singaporean and medical centers. The spread of the presumptive ESBL phenotype to the Enterobacter species was observed in nine medical centers. Overall, ceftriaxone and aztreonam were the best substrates for the detection of the ESBL phenotype between both E. coli isolates and K. pneumoniae ESBL phenotypes; however, there was significant variation between countries in substrate preference. Co-resistances to gentamicin, tobramycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were common throughout isolates collected from most medical centers. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates were very high among isolates collected from Hong Kong, mainland China, Singapore, and the Philippines. The best coverage against ESBL-producing isolates was obtained with imipenem (0% resistance), followed by amikacin (6% resistance).Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 03/2002; 42(3):193-8. · 2.26 Impact Factor