Effects of levodopa on cognitive functioning in moderate-to-severe Parkinson's disease (MSPD).
ABSTRACT Although improved cognition has been reported in patients with mild Parkinson's disease (PD) following the administration of levodopa, mixed results have been found in moderately-to-severely affected PD patients (MSPD), particularly in studies conducted since 1980. In the present study, 16 MSPD patients were tested on separate days, once following overnight levodopa withdrawal and once while optimally treated. A battery of neuropsychological tests that assess a range of cognitive functions (i.e., attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and executive), as well as a measure of depression, were used. Although patients performed better on a measure of confrontation naming in the untreated than in the treated condition, there were no significant differences for any of the other cognitive variables or for the depression scale variable. Thus, these data suggest that there are generally no adverse or beneficial effects of levodopa therapy on cognition in MSPD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits in perceptual timing, or the perception and estimation of time. PD patients can also have cognitive symptoms, including deficits in executive functions such as working memory, planning, and visuospatial attention. Here, we discuss how PD-related cognitive symptoms contribute to timing deficits. Timing is influenced by signaling of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum. Timing also involves the frontal cortex, which is dysfunctional in PD. Frontal cortex impairments in PD may influence memory subsystems as well as decision processes during timing tasks. These data suggest that timing may be a type of executive function. As such, timing can be used to study the neural circuitry of cognitive symptoms of PD as they can be studied in animal models. Performance of timing tasks also maybe a useful clinical biomarker of frontal as well as striatal dysfunction in PD.Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:75. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2013.00075
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ABSTRACT: The role of attention in grasping movements directed at common objects has not been examined in Parkinson's disease (PD), though these movements are critical to activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to determine whether patients with PD demonstrate automaticity in grasping movements directed toward common objects. Automaticity is assumed when tasks can be performed with little or no interference from concurrent tasks. Grasping performance in three patient groups (newly diagnosed, moderate, and advanced/surgically treated PD) on and off of their medication or deep brain stimulation was compared to performance in an age-matched control group. Automaticity was demonstrated by the absence of a decrement in grasping performance when attention was consumed by a concurrent spatial-visualization task. Only the control group and newly diagnosed PD group demonstrated automaticity in their grasping movements. The moderate and advanced PD groups did not demonstrate automaticity. Furthermore, the well-known effects of pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention on movement speed and muscle activation patterns did not appear to reduce the impact of attention-demanding tasks on grasping movements in those with moderate to advanced PD. By the moderate stage of PD, grasping is an attention-demanding process; this change is not ameliorated by dopaminergic or surgical treatments. These findings have important implications for activities of daily living, as devoting attention to the simplest of daily tasks would interfere with complex activities and potentially exacerbate fatigue.Experimental Brain Research 08/2010; 205(1):69-80. DOI:10.1007/s00221-010-2341-0 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of dopamine agonists (DAs) on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not yet completely established. Previous papers reported a worsening effect on some cognitive functions with some DAs, but not with others, suggesting that DAs may differently affect cognition in PD patients according to their pharmacological characteristics. We set out to test the effect of rotigotine and cabergoline on cognitive functions in a group of forty non-demented early-mild PD patients (H &Y <2). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups and evaluated in a randomized cross-over study using neuropsychological tests; at the same time, motor function was monitored under three different treatment conditions: DA (rotigotine or cabergoline), L-dopa, and off therapy. Rotigotine and cabergoline were chosen because while they share a mixed D1 and D2 receptor profile, the former is non-ergolinic and the latter ergolinic. No significant differences were found in cognitive function between the basal condition and the DA treatments. On the basis of the present data, which we compare with previous findings regarding pramipexole IR and pergolide, we hypothesize that combined stimulation of both dopamine receptor families, as occurs with rotigotine, cabergoline, L-dopa and pergolide, may preserve cognitive functions more than pure D2 family stimulation.Functional neurology 28(1):13-7. · 1.86 Impact Factor