Article

Coping with distress by eating or drinking: role of trait urgency and expectancies.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. .
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.09). 10/2004; 18(3):269-74. DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.3.269
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors propose that trait urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) is a risk factor for both alcohol abuse and bulimic symptoms, that disorder-specific expectancies influence whether one engages in one behavior or the other, and that expectancies moderate urgency's influence on those behaviors. Cross-sectional findings were consistent with the model. Problems from alcohol use were comorbid with binge eating and purging. Trait urgency was associated with both behaviors. Alcohol expectancies were associated with drinking levels and with problem drinking, but not with eating. Eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, but not with alcohol use or problems. Urgency's effect on binge eating was moderated by expectancies, but its effect on alcohol use and problem drinking was not.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
73 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, several research projects were undertaken to examine the relationship between qualitative and quantitative parameters of the coal bed gas and microbial inhabitants of the subsurface environment. Majority of the studies focused on methanogens due to their potential to improve the yields of methane extracted for industrial use, but recently it was found that the coalbearing sediments are also a habitat of the methane-oxidizing bacteria. These microbiota comprise an important element of the carbon cycle; however, so far distribution and geochemical controls of their activity were poorly recognized. The current study addresses this dearth of knowledge and provide data about distribution of aerobic methane oxidizers in Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin - one of the most important and prospective mining regions in Europe. The coal seams investigated (No. 358, 364, 401, 405, 406, 410, 413 and 502) were of Bashkirian age and located at depths from c.a. 700 to 1000 m below surface. Methanotrophic bacteria were ubiquitous with activity ranging from 0.191 to 2.513 μM CH4 g− 1 day− 1 in the laboratory conditions (30 °C, 100% water capacity (WHC) and 10% v/v CH4). 16S r RNA sequences retrieved from the coalbed rocks revealed the presence of variable methanotrophic community comprising of type I, II and X methanotrophs with the latter being assumed to play dominant role in subsurface methane oxidation. It was assumed that the methanotrophic bacteria present in the Carboniferous coal deposits should be further investigated to assess their contribution to the safety of mining operations and due to their potential to be used as a biofilter for methane.
    International Journal of Coal Geology 08/2014; · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether distress tolerance and negative urgency moderate the link between depressive symptoms and binge eating frequency, and between disordered eating attitudes and binge eating frequency. Young adult women (N = 186) completed questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, cognitive restraint, eating, shape and weight concerns, distress tolerance, impulsivity (including negative urgency), and binge eating. After controlling for body mass index, race/ethnicity, and other domains of impulsivity, negative urgency was significantly associated with binge eating above and beyond the influence of disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms. Distress tolerance, in contrast, was not associated with binge eating. In addition, neither negative urgency nor distress tolerance moderated the associations between disordered eating attitudes and binge eating frequency, or between depressive symptoms and binge eating. Results support the additive role of difficulties responding adaptively to distress in binge eating frequency, above and beyond the influence of emotional distress. Findings highlight the potential value of focusing on negative urgency in targeted treatments for binge eating among women. Importantly, results from the current study differ from those of previous research; these discrepancies could be the result of variations in sample characteristics and approaches to the assessment of binge eating behavior. Additional research, including longitudinal studies and research using “real-time” assessment strategies, such as ecological momentary assessment, are necessary to elucidate further the role of various emotion regulation strategies in maintaining binge eating behavior in adult women.
    Eating Behaviors 08/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction The contribution of an addictive process to elevated body mass index (BMI) and disordered eating is an area of growing interest. Yet, little is known about how “food addiction” may be related to disordered eating and obesity. The ability of addictive-like eating to account for eating pathology not captured by traditional eating disorders is unknown. No prior research has examined the association of “food addiction” with bulimia nervosa (BN). Finally, little is understood about the association of “food addiction” with patterns of dieting and weight gain. The current study was conducted to address these gaps in the literature. Material and Methods Participants (N = 815) were recruited from online advertisements nationwide and completed measures related to “food addiction”, BMI, weight history, and disordered eating. Results Addictive-like eating was associated with elevated current and lifetime highest BMI, weight cycling, and eating pathology. The prevalence of “food addiction” was higher in participants with BN than in those with binge eating disorder (BED). “Food addiction” continued to be related to clinically relevant variables, especially elevated BMI, even when participants did not meet criteria for BED or BN. The co-occurrence of “food addiction” with eating disorders appears to be associated with a more severe variant of eating pathology. Discussion An addictive-type response to highly palatable food may be contributing to eating-related problems, including obesity and eating disorders. BN relative to BED appears to be more strongly associated with “food addiction.” Additionally, the concept of “food addiction” appears to capture clinically relevant information in participants who do not meet criteria for either BN or BED. Further examination of “food addiction” may be important in understanding the mechanisms underlying certain types of problematic eating behavior.
    Eating Behaviors 08/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor