Coping with distress by eating or drinking: Role of trait urgency and expectancies
ABSTRACT The authors propose that trait urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) is a risk factor for both alcohol abuse and bulimic symptoms, that disorder-specific expectancies influence whether one engages in one behavior or the other, and that expectancies moderate urgency's influence on those behaviors. Cross-sectional findings were consistent with the model. Problems from alcohol use were comorbid with binge eating and purging. Trait urgency was associated with both behaviors. Alcohol expectancies were associated with drinking levels and with problem drinking, but not with eating. Eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, but not with alcohol use or problems. Urgency's effect on binge eating was moderated by expectancies, but its effect on alcohol use and problem drinking was not.
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ABSTRACT: Prior work on maladaptive behaviors has cited impulsivity as a risk factor. The concept of impulsivity, however, fails to address the potential role of negative affect in such behaviors. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale addresses this weakness by dividing impulsivity into four subscales: Urgency, Sensation Seeking, (lack of) Premeditation, and (lack of) Perseverance. We predicted that urgency, defined as the tendency, specifically in the face of negative affect, to act quickly and without planning, would predict elevations on three maladaptive behaviors--excessive reassurance seeking, drinking to cope, and bulimic symptoms as measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory--in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in an undergraduate sample (N=70). Participants were assessed at two time points, 3-4 weeks apart. Urgency significantly predicted all three outcome variables cross-sectionally at both Time 1 and Time 2. Time 1 urgency significantly predicted Time 2 excessive reassurance seeking. Changes in urgency from Time 1 to Time 2 predicted changes in all three outcome variables. Results indicate a clear cross-sectional relationship between urgency and certain maladaptive behaviors. Additionally, some form of longitudinal relationship may exist between these variables, although the use of residual change scores precluded distinction between true change and change due to error.Behaviour Research and Therapy 01/2008; 45(12):3018-29. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2007.08.012 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 04/2009; 23(1):140-5. DOI:10.1037/a0013167 · 2.09 Impact Factor