Coping With Distress by Eating or Drinking: Role of Trait Urgency and Expectancies.
ABSTRACT The authors propose that trait urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) is a risk factor for both alcohol abuse and bulimic symptoms, that disorder-specific expectancies influence whether one engages in one behavior or the other, and that expectancies moderate urgency's influence on those behaviors. Cross-sectional findings were consistent with the model. Problems from alcohol use were comorbid with binge eating and purging. Trait urgency was associated with both behaviors. Alcohol expectancies were associated with drinking levels and with problem drinking, but not with eating. Eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, but not with alcohol use or problems. Urgency's effect on binge eating was moderated by expectancies, but its effect on alcohol use and problem drinking was not.
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- "Moreover, multiple studies have found that sensation seeking is significantly associated with disinhibited eating behaviors (Carrard, Crépin, Ceschi, Golay, & Van der Linden, 2012; Claes, Vandereycken, & Vertommen, 2005; Davis & Fischer, 2013; Fischer, Anderson, & Smith, 2004; Fischer, Smith, & Anderson, 2003; Fischer, Smith, & Cyders, 2008; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). While research to date on the role of positive urgency in disinhibited eating and food addiction is lacking (Cyders & Smith, 2008), negative urgency's role is extensively supported in bulimia nervosa (Carrard et al., 2012; Claes et al., 2005; Cyders & Smith, 2008; Davis & Fischer, 2013; Fischer et al., 2004, 2003, 2008; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). Negative urgency's role in disinhibited eating, and potentially food addiction, may relate to affect; individuals are more likely to act impulsively when under distress in hopes of reducing negative affect (Tice, Bratslavsky, & Baumeister, 2001). "
ABSTRACT: Food addiction is the clinical occurrence in which individuals develop physical and psychological dependencies on high fat, high sugar, and highly palatable foods. Past research has demonstrated a number of similarities between food addiction and drug use disorders including the activation of specific brain regions and neurotransmitters, disrupted neuronal circuitry, and behavioral indicators of addiction such as continued use despite negative consequences. The present study examined the role of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in food addiction as both play salient roles in drug use disorders. Poisson regression analyses using data from 878 undergraduate students revealed negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when under distress, and emotion dysregulation positively predicted symptom count on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2009) whereas a lack of premeditation negatively predicted symptom count (all ps<0.05). Future research is needed to confirm precursors to eating episodes in food addiction, elucidate causal mechanisms, and support an explanatory model of food addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Eating behaviors 07/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.06.007
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- "consistent with data from population samples of comparable age, mean 15±4 (Costa and McRae, 1992). Individuals endorsing less behavioral control, or lack of reflection, would have higher IMP scores (Fischer et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Impulsivity, and in particular the negative urgency aspect of this trait, is associated with poor inhibitory control when experiencing negative emotion. Individual differences in aspects of impulsivity have been correlated with striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and function. This multi-modal pilot study used both positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate dopaminergic and neural activity, respectively, using modified versions of the monetary incentive delay task. Twelve healthy female subjects underwent both scans and completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised to assess Impulsiveness (IMP). We examined the relationship between nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopaminergic incentive/reward release, measured as a change in D2/D3 binding potential between neutral and incentive/reward conditions with [11C]raclopride PET, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation elicited during the anticipation of rewards, measured with fMRI. Left NAcc incentive/reward dopaminergic release correlated with anticipatory reward activation within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left angular gyrus, mammillary bodies, and left superior frontal cortex. Activation in the mPFC negatively correlated with IMP and mediated the relationship between IMP and incentive/reward dopaminergic release in left NAcc. The mPFC, with a regulatory role in learning and valuation, may influence dopamine incentive/reward release.Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 09/2014; 223(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.015 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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- "This is consistent with the cognitive-behavioral model of binge eating which posits that individuals tend to engage in disordered eating behaviors when experiencing overwhelming negative emotions (Agras & Telch, 1998; Smyth et al., 2007). It is also consistent with the negative reinforcement model of drinking whereby individuals experience a momentary relief in negative affect as a result of drinking (Bandura, 1969; Cooper, 1994; Fischer et al., 2004). While Urgency is a tendency to act impulsively in emotional contexts, emotional contexts also impair the ability to control or suppress an automatic (or prepotent) response (Bechara & Van Der Linden, 2005; Schulz et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has been linked to dysregulated eating and problematic alcohol use. The UPPS model identifies five personality-based impulsivity traits that have unique predictive utility: Negative Urgency, Perseverance, Premeditation, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency. Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is an index of impulsive decision making characterized by preference for smaller immediate gains at the cost of larger delayed gains. In the current study, we sought to refine the influence of impulsive personality traits and DRD on disordered eating patterns and problematic drinking. 108 treatment-seeking heavy drinkers were assessed for UPPS impulsivity traits, DRD, disordered eating, alcohol use, and demographic information. With regard to disordered eating patterns, DRD predicted higher levels of Dietary Restraint and Weight and Shape Concerns. Negative Urgency predicted binge eating and Weight and Shape Concerns. Positive Urgency predicted Eating Concerns. Female sex predicted Eating, Weight, and Shape Concerns. When considering problematic alcohol use, only Negative Urgency and Sensation Seeking were predictive. This is the first study to examine both personality-based impulsivity and DRD in relation to pathological eating and drinking behavior. The results suggest the importance of disentangling the contributions of various impulsivity constructs on dysregulated eating.Appetite 05/2014; 80. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.05.004 · 2.69 Impact Factor