Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention to Prevent Smoking Relapse: Dismantling the Effects of Amount of Content Versus Contact.
ABSTRACT Relapse prevention remains a major challenge to smoking cessation efforts. T. H. Brandon, B. N. Collins, L. M. Juliano, and A. B. Lazev (2000) found that a series of 8 empirically based relapse-prevention booklets mailed to ex-smokers over 1 year significantly reduced relapse. This study dismantled 2 components of that intervention: the amount of content (number of booklets) and the frequency of contact. Content and contact were crossed in a 2 X 2 factorial design. The criteria of at least 1 week of abstinence at baseline was met by 431 participants, 75%-85% of whom returned 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up questionnaires. Eight booklets produced consistently higher point-prevalence abstinence rates than did a single booklet, but frequency of contact did not affect outcome. Moreover, the high-content interventions were highly cost-effective.
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Article: Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of a Minimal Intervention to Prevent Smoking Relapse: Dismantling the Effects of Amount of Content Versus Contact.
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- "c o m / l o c a t e / c o n c l i n t r i a l self-help interventions have been found to be effective for reducing smoking relapse in motivated quitters  . One such intervention, using a set of specially developed relapseprevention booklets, has been found to be efficacious and cost-effective among recently quit smokers   . This series of booklets, called Forever Free®, includes content that draws on empirical and theoretical research in relapse prevention  . "
ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. Although behavioral counseling combined with pharmacotherapy is the most effective approach to aiding smoking cessation, intensive treatments are rarely chosen by smokers, citing inconvenience. In contrast, minimal self-help interventions have the potential for greater reach, with demonstrated efficacy for relapse prevention, but not for smoking cessation. This paper summarizes the design and methods used for a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a minimal self-help smoking cessation intervention that consists of a set of booklets delivered across time. Baseline participant recruitment data are also presented. Daily smokers were recruited nationally via multimedia advertisements and randomized to one of three conditions. The Usual Care (UC) group received a standard smoking-cessation booklet. The Standard Repeated Mailings (SRM) group received 8 booklets mailed over a 12-month period. The Intensive Repeated Mailings (IRM) group received 10 booklets and additional supplemental materials mailed monthly over 18 months. A total of 2641 smokers were screened, 2349 were randomized, and 1874 provided data for analyses. Primary outcomes will be self-reported abstinence at 6-month intervals up to 30 months. If the self-help booklets are efficacious, this minimal, low cost intervention can be widely disseminated and, hence, has the potential for significant public health impact with respect to reduction in smoking-related illness and mortality.Contemporary Clinical Trials 05/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.05.010 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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- "Self-guided educational materials for skills training seem as effective as, but cheaper than, more expensive face-to-face counseling sessions and so seem likely to be more cost-effective. Brandon et al. have developed a series of eight booklets to be used as self-help materials for smoking relapse prevention [25,26]. Forever Free booklets for smoking relapse prevention have been evaluated by Brandon et al. in two randomized controlled trials in the United States [25,26] (included in the meta-analysis above). "
ABSTRACT: Most people who stop smoking successfully for a few weeks will return to smoking again in the medium term. There are few effective interventions to prevent this relapse and none used routinely in clinical practice. A previous exploratory meta-analysis suggested that self-help booklets may be effective but requires confirmation. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a set of self-help educational materials to prevent smoking relapse in the National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Service. This is an open, randomized controlled trial. The target population is carbon monoxide (CO) verified quitters at four weeks in the NHS stop smoking clinic (total sample size N = 1,400). The experimental intervention tested is a set of eight revised Forever Free booklets, including an introduction booklet and more extensive information on all important issues for relapse prevention. The control intervention is a leaflet that has no evidence to suggest it is effective but is currently given to some patients using NHS stop smoking services.Two follow-up telephone interviews will be conducted at three and 12 months after the quit date. The primary outcome will be prolonged abstinence from months four to 12 with no more than five lapses, confirmed by a CO test at the 12-month assessment. The secondary outcomes will be seven-day self-report point prevalence abstinence at three months and seven-day biochemically confirmed point prevalence abstinence at 12 months. To assess cost-effectiveness, costs will be estimated from a health service perspective and the EQ-5D will be used to estimate the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year) gain associated with each intervention.The comparison of smoking abstinence rates (and any other binary outcomes) between the two trial arms will be carried out using odds ratio as the outcome statistic and other related statistical tests. Exploratory subgroup analyses, including logistic regression analyses with interaction terms, will be conducted to investigate possible effect-modifying variables. The possible effect of self-help educational materials for the prevention of smoking relapse has important public health implications. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN36980856.Trials 05/2012; 13(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-13-69 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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- "RP modules are standard to virtually all psychosocial interventions for substance use  and an increasing number of self-help manuals are available to assist both therapists and clients. RP strategies can now be disseminated using simple but effective methods; for instance, mail-delivered RP booklets are shown to reduce smoking relapse [135,136]. As noted earlier, the broad influence of RP is also evidenced by the current clinical vernacular, as "relapse prevention" has evolved into an umbrella term synonymous with most cognitive-behavioral skills-based interventions addressing high-risk situations and coping responses. "
ABSTRACT: The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 07/2011; 6(1):17. DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-6-17 · 1.16 Impact Factor